B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)

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This field includes papers that examine policy issues related to whether materials which otherwise are subject to exclusive copyright protection should be available for justifiable use without seeking permission and whether existing exceptions and limitations facilitate creative and scientific progress. Among others, the papers included under this category distinguish exceptions and limitations for the purposes of innovation or public policy, open-ended provisions from closed lists, commercial and non-commercial uses.


Evidence Based Policy Areas
  • B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) (100)

B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) is an evidence based policy area defined within the Copyright Evidence wiki.

The following studies are related to this issue (100):

 Citation
Akerlof et al (2002)Akerlof, G. A., Arrow, K. J., Bresnahan, T., Buchanan, J. M., Coase, R., Cohen, L. R., ... & Hemphill, C. S. (2002). The copyright term extension act of 1998: An economic analysis. Washington DC: AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies.
Akerlof, Hahn and Litan (2002)Akerlof, G. A., Arrow, K. J., Bresnahan, T., Buchanan, J. M., Coase, R., Cohen, L. R., ... & Hemphill, C. S. (2002). The copyright term extension act of 1998: An economic analysis. Washington DC: AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies.
Arai and Kinukawa (2014)Arai, Y. and Kinukawa, S., 2014. Copyright infringement as user innovation. Journal of Cultural Economics, 38(2), pp.131-144.
Astle and Muir (2002)Astle, P.J. and Muir, A., 2002. Digitization and preservation in public libraries and archives. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 34(2), pp.67-79.
Attorney-General's Department (2008)Attorney-General's Department (Australia), 2008, Review of copyright exceptions for private copying of photographs and films - final report, Attorney-General's Department (Australia)
Aufderheide and Sinnreich (2015)Aufderheide, P., & Sinnreich, A. (2015). Documentarians, fair use, and free expression: changes in copyright attitudes and actions with access to best practices. Information, Communication & Society, (ahead-of-print), 1-10.
Australian Law Reform Commission (2013)ALRC Report 122 (2013), available at http://www.alrc.gov.au/sites/default/files/pdfs/publications/final_report_alrc_122_2nd_december_2013_.pdf.
Azoulay, Graff Zivin and Manso (2009)Azoulay, P., Graff Zivin, J. S., & Manso, G. (2011). Incentives and creativity: evidence from the academic life sciences. The RAND Journal of Economics, 42(3), 527-554.
Balganesh, Manta and Wilkinson-Ryan (2014)Balganesh, S., Manta, I., & Wilkinson-Ryan, T. (2014). Judging similarity. 100 Iowa Law Review 267; University of Pennsylvania Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-15; Hofstra Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-09. Available at SSRN 2409811.
Barker (2012b)Barker, George Robert, 'Estimating the Economic Effects of Fair Use and Other Copyright Exceptions: A Critique of Recent Research in Australia, US, Europe and Singapore' (November 26, 2012).
Benkler (1999)Benkler, Y. (1999). Free as the air to common use: First amendment constraints on enclosure of the public domain. NyuL Rev., 74, 354.
Bjork (2012)Björk, B.C., The Hybrid Model for Open Access Publication of Scholarly Articles–a Failed Experiment?.
Camerani, Grassano, Chavarro and Tang (2013)Camerani, R., Grassano, N., Chavarro, D. & Tang, P. (2013) Private Copying, IPO, 2013
Canat, Guibault and Logeais (2015)Canat, J., Guibault, L. and Logeais, E., Study on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Museums, World Intellectual Property Organization (2015) SCCR/30/2.
Castañer and Campos (2002)Castañer, X. and Campos, L., 2002. The determinants of artistic innovation: Bringing in the role of organizations. Journal of Cultural Economics, 26(1), pp.29-52.
Cave, Deegan and Heinink (2000)Cave, M., Deegan, M. and Heinink, L., 2000. Copyright clearance in the refugee studies centre digital library project. RLG DigiNews, 4(5).
Center for Social Media (2010)Center for Social Media. (2010). Clipping Our Own Wings: Copyright and Creativity in Communication Research. American University.
Charles River Associates (2013)Assessing the Economic Impacts of Adapting Certain Limitations and Exceptions to Copyright and Related Rights in the EU, Charles River Assoc., (2013), available at
Charness and Daniela (2014)Charness, G., & Grieco, D. (2014). Creativity and Financial Incentives.
Cheliotis (2007)Cheliotis, G. (2007). Remix culture: an empirical analysis of creative reuse and the licensing of digital media in online communities.
Corbett (2011)Corbett, S., 2011. Archiving Our Culture in a Digital Environment: Copyright Law and Digitisation Practices in Cultural Heritage Institutions. New Zealand Law Foundation Report.
Crews (2015)Crews, K., Study on Copyright Limitations and Related Rights, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Thirtieth Session, SCCR/30/3 (2015).
Danbury (2016)Danbury, R. (2016). Is an EU publishers’ right a good idea? Final report on the AHRC project: Evaluating potential legal responses to threats to the production of news in a digital era, https://www.cipil.law.cam.ac.uk/sites/www.law.cam.ac.uk/files/images/www.cipil.law.cam.ac.uk/documents/copyright_and_news/danbury_publishers_right_report.pdf
David (1993)David, P. A. 1993. “Intellectual Property Institutions and the Panda’ s Thumb: Patents , Copyrights and Trade Secrets in Economic Theory and History”, in M. Wallerstein, M. Mogee and R. Schoen (eds .), Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology . Washington DC: National Academy Press; 19-61.
De Wolf & Partners (2014a)De Wolf & Partners, Study on the Legal Framework of Text and Data Mining (TDM) (2014).
De Wolf & Partners (2014b)Study on the Making Available Right and its Relationship with the Reproduction Right in Cross-border Digital Transmissions, De Wolf & Partners (2014).
De Wolf and Partners (2013)Triaille, J.P., Dusollier, S., Depreeuw, S., Hubin, J.B. and De Francquen, A., 2013. Study on the application of Directive 2001/29/EC on copyright and related rights in the information society. InfoSoc Directive.
Depoorter and Walker (2013)Depoorter, B. and Walker, R.K., 2013. Copyright false positives.
Depoorter and Walker (2013) 2Depoorter, B. and Walker, R.K., 2013. Copyright false positives.
DiCola (2013)DiCola, P. (2013). Money from Music: Survey Evidence on Musicians' Revenue and Lessons About Copyright Incentives. Ariz. L. Rev., 55, 301.
Dickson (2010)Dickson, M., 2010. Due diligence, futile effort: Copyright and the digitization of the Thomas E. Watson papers. The American Archivist, 73(2), pp.626-636.
Dobusch and Quack (2013)Dobusch, L., & Quack, S. (2013). Framing standards, mobilizing users: Copyright versus fair use in transnational regulation. Review of International Political Economy, 20(1), 52-88.
Dryden (2008)Dryden, J.E., 2008. Copyright in the real world: Making archival material available on the Internet (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto).
Dusollier (2010)Dusollier, S., WIPO (2010) CDIP/4/3/REV./STUDY/INF/1.
Edwards, Klein, Lee, Moss, and Philip (2015)Edwards, L., Klein, B., Lee, D., Moss, G., & Philip, F. (2015). Discourse, justification and critique: towards a legitimate digital copyright regime?. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21(1), 60-77.
Erickson, Heald, Homberg, Kretschmer and Mendis (2015)Erickson, K., Heald, P. J., Homberg, F., Kretschmer, M., & Mendis, D. (2015). Copyright and the Value of the Public Domain: An Empirical Assessment. Intellectual Property Office Research Paper.
Erickson, Kretschmer and Mendis (2013)Erickson, K., Kretschmer, M., & Mendis, D. (2013). Copyright and the Economic Effects of Parody: An Empirical Study of Music Videos on the YouTube Platform and an Assessment of the Regulatory Options. Intellectual Property Office Research Paper, (2013/24).
European Commission (2011b)European Commission Impact assessment on the cross-border online access to orphan works (Commission Staff Working Paper SEC (2011) 615 (final)
Favale (2011)Favale, M. (2011). Approximation and DRM: can digital locks respect copyright exceptions?. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 19(4), 306-323
Favale, Homberg, Kretschmer, Mendis and Secchi (2013)Favale, M., Homberg, F., Kretschmer, M., Mendis, D., & Secchi, D. (2015). Copyright, and the Regulation of Orphan Works: A Comparative Review of Seven Jurisdictions and a Rights Clearance Simulation. Available at SSRN 2613498.
Frosio (2017)Frosio, G. F. (2017). Reforming Intermediary Liability in the Platform Economy: A European Digital Single Market Strategy.
Gerhardt (2014)Gerhardt, D. R. (2014). Copyright at the Museum: Using the Publication Doctrine to Free Art and History. Available at SSRN 2505041.
Gerhardt, 2014Gerhardt, D. R. (2014). Copyright at the Museum: Using the Publication Doctrine to Free Art and History. Available at SSRN 2505041.
Gordon (1982)Gordon, W. J. (1982). Fair use as market failure: a structural and economic analysis of the" Betamax" case and its predecessors. Columbia Law Review, 82(8), 1600-1657.
Gowers (2006)Gowers, A. (2006). Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. The Stationery Office.
Guibault, Westkamp and Rieber-Mohn (2007)Guibault et al., Study on the Implementation and Effect in Member States’ Laws of Directive 2001/29/EC on the Harmonisation of Certain Aspects of Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society (2007), available at
Hackett (2015)
Haefliger, Jäger and Von Krogh (2010)Haefliger, S., Jäger, P., & Von Krogh, G. (2010). Under the radar: Industry entry by user entrepreneurs. Research policy, 39(9), 1198-1213.
Hagedoorn and Ridder (2012)Hagedoorn, J., & Ridder, A. K. (2012). Open innovation, contracts, and intellectual property rights: an exploratory empirical study.
Handke (2015)Handke, C. (2015). Digitization and Competition in Copyright Industries: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back?. Homo Oeconomicus, 32.
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