C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)

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This field includes papers that examine policy issues related to the process that enable mass digitisation of copyright protected content. Among others, the papers included under this category focus on potential solutions for orphan works and non-use of cultural works (e.g. exceptions, licensing schemes and extended collective licensing).


Evidence Based Policy Areas
  • C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) (54)

C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) is an evidence based policy area defined within the Copyright Evidence wiki.

The following studies are related to this issue (54):

 Citation
Akmon (2010)Akmon, D. (2010). Only with your permission: how rights holders respond (or don’t respond) to requests to display archival materials online. Archival Science, 10(1), 45-64.
Astle and Muir (2002)Astle, P.J. and Muir, A., 2002. Digitization and preservation in public libraries and archives. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 34(2), pp.67-79.
Athey, Mobius and Pal (2017)Athey, S., Mobius, M. M., & Pál, J. (2017). The Impact of Aggregators on Internet News Consumption.
Bechtold (2013)Bechtold, S., 2013. The fashion of TV show formats.
Bmrb Social Research (2009)BMRB Social Research. (2009). Future copyright development. Intellectual Property Office, UK.
Bockstedt, Kauffman and Riggins (2004)Bockstedt, J., Kauffman, R. J., & Riggins, F. J. (2004). The move to artist-led online music distribution: Explaining structural changes in the digital music market. Paper accepted at the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Bodo (2015)
Brooks (2005)Brooks, T. (2005). Survey of reissues of US recordings. Council on Library and Information Resources.
Calzada and Gil (2016)Calzada, J., & Gil, R. (2016). What Do News Aggregators Do? Evidence from Google News in Spain and Germany.
Cameron and Bazelon (2013)Cameron, L., & Bazelon, C. (2013). The impact of digitization on business models in copyright driven industries: a review of economic issues. Brattle Groupe paper prepared for the US National Research Council, available at: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/cs/groups/pgasite/documents/webpage/pga_063398.pdf.
Canat, Guibault and Logeais (2015)Canat, J., Guibault, L. and Logeais, E., Study on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Museums, World Intellectual Property Organization (2015) SCCR/30/2.
Cave, Deegan and Heinink (2000)Cave, M., Deegan, M. and Heinink, L., 2000. Copyright clearance in the refugee studies centre digital library project. RLG DigiNews, 4(5).
Chiou and Tucker (2011)Chiou, Lesley and Tucker, Catherine, Copyright, Digitization, and Aggregation (December 13, 2011). NET Institute Working Paper No. 11-18.
Corbett (2011)Corbett, S., 2011. Archiving Our Culture in a Digital Environment: Copyright Law and Digitisation Practices in Cultural Heritage Institutions. New Zealand Law Foundation Report.
Crews (2015)Crews, K., Study on Copyright Limitations and Related Rights, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Thirtieth Session, SCCR/30/3 (2015).
De Wolf and Partners (2013)Triaille, J.P., Dusollier, S., Depreeuw, S., Hubin, J.B. and De Francquen, A., 2013. Study on the application of Directive 2001/29/EC on copyright and related rights in the information society. InfoSoc Directive.
Dickson (2010)Dickson, M., 2010. Due diligence, futile effort: Copyright and the digitization of the Thomas E. Watson papers. The American Archivist, 73(2), pp.626-636.
Djekic and Loebbecke (2005)DJEKIC, P. and LOEBBECKE, C. 2005. Software piracy prevention through digital rights management systems. In: MULLER, G. and LIN, K. J. (eds.) CEC 2005: Seventh IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce Technology, Proceedings. Munich, Germany.
Dryden (2008)Dryden, J.E., 2008. Copyright in the real world: Making archival material available on the Internet (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto).
EIFL (2013)Electronic Information For Libraries - The European Orphan Works Directive An EIFL Guide (2013)
European Commission (2011b)European Commission Impact assessment on the cross-border online access to orphan works (Commission Staff Working Paper SEC (2011) 615 (final)
Favale, Homberg, Kretschmer, Mendis and Secchi (2013)Favale, M., Homberg, F., Kretschmer, M., Mendis, D., & Secchi, D. (2015). Copyright, and the Regulation of Orphan Works: A Comparative Review of Seven Jurisdictions and a Rights Clearance Simulation. Available at SSRN 2613498.
George (2005)George, C. A. (2005). Testing the barriers to digital libraries: A study seeking copyright permission to digitize published works. New Library World, 106(7/8), 332-342.
Gowers (2006)Gowers, A. (2006). Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. The Stationery Office.
Handke (2012a)Handke, C. (2012). A Taxonomy of Empirical Research on Copyright-How Do We Inform Policy?. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 9(1), pp.47-92.
Hansen, Hashimoto, Hinze, Samuelson and Urban (2013)Hansen, D. R., Hashimoto, K., Hinze, G., Samuelson, P., & Urban, J. M. (2013). Solving the orphan works problem for the united states. Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts, 37(1).
Hansen, Hinze, and Urban (2013)Hansen, D. R., Hinze, G., & Urban, J. M. (2013). Orphan Works and the Search for Rightsholders: Who Participates in a'Diligent Search'under Present and Proposed Regimes?. Berkeley Digital Library Copyright Project, White Paper, (4)
Hargreaves (2011)Hargreaves, I. (2011). Digital Opportunity. A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth,
Heald (2007)Heald, P. J. (2007). Property rights and the efficient exploitation of copyrighted works: an empirical analysis of public domain and copyrighted fiction best sellers. UGA Legal Studies Research Paper, (07-003).
Heald (2008)Heald, P. J. (2008). Testing the Over- and Under-Exploitation Hypotheses: Bestselling Musical Compositions (1913-32) and Their Use in Cinema (1968-2007). U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper, (234).
Hudson and Kenyon (2007)Hudson, E. and Kenyon, A.T., 2007. Digital Access: The Impact of Copyright on Digitisation Practices in Australian Museums, Galleries, Libraries, and Archives. UNSWLJ, 30, p.12.
Ilevbare (2008)ILEVBARE, F. M. 2008. Psychosocial factors influencing attitudes towards internet piracy among Nigerian university students. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 16, 120-129.
Intellectual Property Office (2015b)Intellectual Property Office (2015). Government response to the consultation on reducing the duration of copyright in certain unpublished works.
Korn (2009)Korn, N., In from the Cold: An assessment of the scope of ‘Orphan Works’ and its impact on the delivery of services to the public (April 2009).
Liebowitz (2005)Liebowitz, S. J. (2005). Testing file-sharing's impact by examining record sales in cities. School of Management University of Texas Paper, September, 1-31.
Liu (2015)Liu, J. (2015). Copyright for Blockheads: An Empirical Study of Market Incentive and Intrinsic Motivation. Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2633263
Monroy Rodríguez (2009)Monroy Rodríguez, J. C. Study on the limitations and exceptions to copyright and related rights for the purposes of educational and research activities in Latin America and the Caribbean (2009) WIPO, Geneva.
Morrison and Secker (2015)Morrison, C. and Secker, J., 2015. Copyright Literacy in the UK: a survey of librarians and other cultural heritage sector professionals. Library and Information Research, 39(121), pp.75-97.
Pearce (2011)Pearce, K. E. (2011). Convergence through mobile peer-to-peer file sharing in the Republic of Armenia. International Journal of Communication, 5, 511-528.
Poole (2010)Poole, N. (2010). The Cost of Digitising Europe’s Cultural Heritage A Report for the Comité des Sages of the European Commission.
Pritcher (2000)Pritcher, L., 2000. Ad* access: seeking copyright permissions for a digital age.
Public and Corporate Economic Consultants (2013)Orphan Works in the UK and Overseas, Public and Corporate Economic Consultants (2013), available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/orphan-works-in-the-uk-and-overseas.
Rappaport (1998)Rappaport, E. B. (1998, May). Copyright term extension: Estimating the economic values. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
Schofield and Urban (2015)Schofield B. L. and Urban J. M. Takedown and Today's Academic Digital Library (2015) UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper No. 2694731.
Stannard (2015)Stannard, E. (2015). A Copyright Snapshot: the Impact of New Copyright Legislation on Information Professionals. Legal Information Management, 15(04), 233-239.
Stobo, Deazley and Anderson (2013)Stobo, V., Deazley, R. and Anderson, I., 2013. Copyright & Risk: Scoping the Wellcome Digital Library Project (Vol. 10, pp. 17-23). CREATe Working Paper.
Stratton (2011)Stratton, B. (2011). Seeking New Landscapes: A rights clearance study in the context of mass digitisation of 140 books published between 1870 and 2010. London: British Library/ARROW http://pressandpolicy. bl. uk/imagelibrary/downloadMedia. ashx.
Travis (2010)Travis, H., 2010. Estimating the economic impact of mass digitization projects on copyright holders: Evidence from the Google Book search litigation. Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA, 57, pp.41-62.
Troll Covery (2005)Troll Covey, D., 2005. Acquiring copyright permission to digitize and provide open access to books
United States Copyright Office (2015a)Copyright and the Music Marketplace, United States Copyright Office (2015), available at http://copyright.gov/docs/musiclicensingstudy/copyright-and-the-music-marketplace.pdf.
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