Cameron (1988)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Cameron (1988)
Title: The Impact of Vedio Recorders on Cinema Attendence
Author(s): Cameron, S.
Year: 1988
Citation: Cameron, S. (1988). The impact of video recorders on cinema attendance. Journal of Cultural Economics, 12(1), 73-80.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This study uses an economic model with no original data.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 1975-1982
Funder(s):

Abstract

Cinema attendances in the United Kingdom and the United States have been subject to severe declines in the post-war period. Fairly strong evidence (Belson, 1958) exists that the arrival and development of television contributed powerfully to the initial decline. As televisions now populate almost every home we would expect this influence to have worked itself out. The 1980's have seen the arrival of videos as a new threat to cinema takings. Analysts of the industry have been suggesting (Docherty et. al., 1986), (Variety, 1985) that the threat is more apparent than real with demographic factors and/or poor films being the cause of more recent audience declines. These claims derive from casual inspection of ticket receipts (Variety, 1985) or one-off surveys of consumer attitudes (Docherty et. al., 1986). To date there has been no concrete evidence offered for or against the impact of video. Such evidence is hard to gather because of data limitations. This is particularly the case for the U.S. where there is the added complication of diffusion of pay TV. The U.K. is free from this complication as pay TV is still extremely rare and monthly price and attendance figures are available until their publication ceased in May 1985. In this note we use a demand equation to discuss what ticket sales would have been in the period (January 1983 onwards) when video access began to gather impetus. Comparison of the equation results with actual ticket sales suggests a marked reduction which may tentatively be attributed to the VCR.

Main Results of the Study

Comparison of the equation results with actual ticket sales suggests a marked reduction which may tentatively be attributed to the VCR.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

None stated.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: Not stated
"Not stated" is not a number.
Level of aggregation: Cinema attendance
Period of material under study: 1975-1982