Chiang and Assane (2007)

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Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Chiang and Assane (2007)
Title: Determinants of music copyright violations on the university campus
Author(s): Chiang, E. P., Assane, D.
Year: 2007
Citation: Chiang, E. P., & Assane, D. (2007). Determinants of Music Copyright Violations on the University Campus. Journal of Cultural Economics, 31(3), 187-204.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Chiang and Assane (2009), Fetscherin (2009)
About the Data
Data Description: Confidential, anonymous written survey of 665 college students from two major U.S. universities, with 472 sufficiently complete for empirical inclusion (51% male, 49% female). The median age was 21 and included students from all university levels and majors. Respondents were 52% White; 14% Asian; 38% all other ethnicities combined. 14% of the students lived on campus, and 71% worked at least part time.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2003-2004
Funder(s):
  • None stated

Abstract

The protection of copyrights in the music industry has been of paramount concern as the popularity of digital music players, personal websites, and filesharing continues to grow, each of which subsequently contributes to the persistence of Internet music piracy. While the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) links filesharing to copyright piracy, others argue that filesharing allows maximum exposure of artists’ music which in turn increases its value. While this debate continues, little empirical research has specifically addressed the behavioral aspects of the consumer. In this paper, we use survey data on university students to study how attitudes toward copyright law along with economic and demographic factors affect the extent of music copyright violations. We find that while students are responsive to economic incentives and perceptions of risk, the extent of these incentives has not reversed the overall propensity to engage in filesharing.

Main Results of the Study

This study evaluates music consumption and file-sharing habits of university students as well as their attitudes towards music piracy. Results amongst students indicate cost as a major factor to students, whose behaviour is influenced by heightened risk and lowered cost. The article concludes that, so long as attractive (competitively priced and compatible with students’ willingness to pay) and flexible (e.g., single song purchase as opposed to entire album), students will opt for copyright compliant alternatives to file-sharing.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Pursuing litigation against infringing individual had some impact on student perceptions of risks of file-sharing. However, students are sensitive to music prices and quality, and the music industry can offer incentives sufficient to increase willingness to pay for legal downloads.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 472
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2003-2004