Condry (2004)

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Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Condry (2004)
Title: Cultures of music piracy An ethnographic comparison of the US and Japan
Author(s): Condry, I
Year: 2004
Citation: Condry, I. (2004). Cultures of music piracy An ethnographic comparison of the US and Japan. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(3), 343-363.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Steinmetz and Tunnell (2013), Wang, Yang and Bhattacharjee (2011)
About the Data
Data Description: The article includes secondary data from RIAA and RIAA along with data from multiple other articles, Oberholzer, 2004 and Vogel, 2001 being examples.

The author also surveyed university students from the United States about illegal downloading using 70 essay question surveys.

Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2003-2004
Funder(s):

Abstract

In 2003, the US recording industry, hoping to change what some view as a ‘culture of piracy’, initiated lawsuits against its own consumers. What is this culture of piracy and what is at stake in trying to change it? In this article, I take an ethnographic look at music file-sharing, and compare the situation in the US with Japan, the second largest music market in the world. My findings are based on fieldwork in Tokyo, and surveys and discussions with US college students. By considering the ways social dynamics and cultural orientations guide uses of digital media technology, I argue that a legal and political focus on ‘piracy’ ignores crucial aspects of file-sharing, and is misleading in the assumptions it makes for policy. A focus on fan participation in media success provides an alternative perspective on how to encourage flourishing music cultures.

Main Results of the Study

Explores the impact of illegal downloading activity using secondary data and survey data from university students in the United States Highlights the difference between the way Japan and US share music as in Japan using internet data is expensive compared to the US so they share by copying on hard drives and CD's while US share more via the internet. Hence preventing online sharing does not prevent copying The authors points out that declining record sales could be attributed to increases in price instead of attributing it to solely file sharing. Warns against draconian copyright regimes as it could hinder the competitiveness of US copyright products . Concludes by pointing out that file sharing is a way for consumers to spread knowledge about new music and that there is also the try before you by aspect to file sharing where consumers can test music before buying it.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Suggested the music industry update their business models to take into account technological developments and changes in demand

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 70
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2003-2004