Forman (2010)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Forman (2010)
Title: An exploratory study on the factors associated with ethical intention of digital piracy
Author(s): Forman, A. E.
Year: 2010
Citation: Forman, A. E. (2009). An exploratory study on the factors associated with ethical intention of digital piracy (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University).
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Two-phase anonymous online survey. First phase consisted of a 6-point Lickert-type scale with 52 participants (US undergraduate students at a single institution). Second phase consisted of a 6-point Lickert-type scale with 407 participants (US undergraduate students at a single institution). The author does not specify a funder for this research, and does not specify which industries the digital piracy relates to.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • May 2009 - August 2009
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

Each year billions of dollars are lost due to illegal downloading and copying of intellectual property. Individuals often perceive little or no consequences as a result of digital piracy. Research has shown that perceived consequences could be used to alter an individual's ethical intention to engage in digital piracy (INT). In addition subjective norm (SUN) may also contribute to INT. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the factors of perceived consequences and to assess their contribution, as well as the contribution of SUN, to INT. This predictive study developed a quantitative instrument to measure the contribution of the factors of perceived consequences and SUN on INT. In phase one of this study, an anonymous exploratory questionnaire was used to gather a list of perceived consequences. That list was combined with a list of perceived consequences found through an extensive review of the literature and a survey instrument was developed and used in phase two. After data cleaning, a total of 407 responses remained. Exploratory factor analysis incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) identified eight factors of INT: Personal Emotional Consequences (PEC), Freedom Consequences (FRC), Minor Consequences (MIC), Personal Freedom Consequences (PFC), Personal Moral Consequences (PMC), Network Access Consequences (NAC), Self Worth Consequences (SWC), and Industry Financial Consequences (IFC). A model was developed using Ordinal Logistic Regression to determine the contribution of the eight factors of perceived consequences and SUN on INT. PEC, PMC, and IFC as well as SUN were found to be significant contributors to INT. The Mann-Whitney U test determined that INT was the only factor that showed a significant difference for males. Additionally, gender was a significant contributor to FRC, MIC, PFC, PMC, SWC, and IFC. Each of these factors was more significant for females than males. The Kruskal-Wallis test determined that there were no significant differences in the factors of perceived consequences, SUN, and INT based on age or computer usage. Important contributions of this study include the identification of eight perceived consequence factors not previously known as well as the development of a unified predictive model, addressing all forms of digital piracy.

Main Results of the Study

The main results reported by this study:

  • The eight factors of perceived consequences that contribute to ethical intention to engage in digital piracy were named Personal Emotional Consequences (PEC), Freedom Consequences (FRC), Minor Consequences (MIC), Personal Freedom Consequences (PFC), Personal Moral Consequences (PMC), Network Access Consequences (NAC), Self Worth Consequences (SWC), and Industry Financial Consequences (IFC).
  • The results of this study indicate that Personal Emotional Consequences, Personal Moral Consequences, and Industry Financial Consequences are the factors that contribute to intention to engage in digital piracy.
  • Prior research has been inconclusive regarding gender and INT, but the results of this study indicate that gender is significant in its contribution to intention to engage in digital piracy. Intention to engage in digital piracy was the only variable that resulted in higher significance for male participants than for females indicating that ethical intention has less bearing on males’ likelihood of engaging in digital piracy.
  • The factors Freedom Consequences, Minor Consequences, Personal Freedom Consequences, Personal Moral Consequences, Self Worth Consequences, and Industry Financial Consequences were found to have higher significance for female participants than males. These results indicate that the perception of these factors may be what deters females from engaging in digital piracy.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Policy implications reported in this study:

  • A unified, predictive model was developed and constructed with the factors of perceived consequences not previously found in the literature, addressing all forms of digital piracy, not specific to an individual type of digital piracy such as music or software.
  • Knowing what contributes to the ethical intention to engage in digital piracy can help agencies work toward slowing or stopping digital piracy, and such agencies might include law enforcement as well as educational institutions.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 52
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: May 2009 - August 2009


Sample size: 407
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: May 2009 - August 2009