Holt and Copes (2010)

From Copyright Evidence
Jump to: navigation, search

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Holt and Copes (2010)
Title: Transferring subcultural knowledge on-line: Practices and beliefs of persistent digital pirates
Author(s): Holt, T. J., Copes, H.
Year: 2010
Citation: Holt, Thomas J., and Heith Copes. "Transferring subcultural knowledge on-line: Practices and beliefs of persistent digital pirates." Deviant Behavior 31.7 (2010): 625-654.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Steinmetz and Tunnell (2013)
About the Data
Data Description: Semi-structured interviews with 34 individuals (29 males and 5 females between ages of 19 and 34, median 20) active in media piracy. Interviewees resided in Australia, Canada, Holland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Researchers also performed ethnographic observation of online forums (using a major bittorrent site with 6,000 active members, analysis of 300 posts).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2007
Funder(s):

Abstract

Criminal subcultures form around deviant behaviors as a consequence of persistent interactions with like-minded others who facilitate the transmission of norms, values, and belief. Although researchers have explored social interactions in the real world, few have considered how learning occurs through virtual interactions. We address the role of on-line interactions in spreading subcultural knowledge by interviewing 34 persistent digital pirates and performing a non-participant ethnography of an on-line forum devoted to piracy. Our results show that through on-line interactions, pirates learn the norms and values of digital piracy, including how to recognize and avoid risks associated with pirating and how to make sense of and justify their actions. They did not see themselves as members of a piracy subculture, however. These findings show that subcultural knowledge can be transmitted through on-line interactions, even when participants do not fully invest in the group.

Main Results of the Study

Media pirates within hacker subculture share the belief that information should be shared and that illegal downloading is due to bad practices of record companies and does not harm the artist. While they are aware of legal sanctions, these threats do not play a significant role in decision making. Piracy is increasing and becoming more sophisticated; deviant behaviour will change to reflect changing technology. Further, many within the hacking subculture identify more strongly with conventional society, partly due to ease of online participation, allowing spread of subculture values throughout society. This also may explain the widespread neutralization of perceived illegality amongst media pirates.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

As the threat of legal sanctions play a small role in influencing illegal downloading, emphasizing the industry's assertion of negative impact on artists and addressing the concerns of hacker subcultures may be a more effective deterrent to illegal downloading.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 34
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2007


Sample size: 300
Level of aggregation: Forum post
Period of material under study: 2007