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Datasets Created for Study

Name of Study
This is a required field - unless explicitly defined otherwise the wiki page will be named according to the value in this field.

These should be created using the following naming convention:

Where there is a sole author/editor:
  • Author-surname (year)
  • e.g. Palin (2015)

Where there are two or more authors/editors:
  • Author-surname-1, Author-surname-2 and Author-surname-3 (year)
  • e.g. Palin, Jones and Cleese (2015)

Where there is more than one record by those authors in a given year:
  • Author-surname-1 (year_uniquesuffix)
  • e.g. Palin and Jones (2015a) and Palin and Jones (2015b)
:
Please note: the row above will autocomplete with the names of existing studies in order to help you to avoid naming collisions. Where it is unavoidable please suffix your Name of Study with sequential letters, e.g. Palin and Jones (2015b)
Author(s)
Please separate authors with a semi-colon.

Adding a new author will create a corresponding wiki page. This may not happen immediately - you can tell it has happened when the hyperlink on the 'Read' page is no longer coloured red. Please visit the author page to update their disciplinary association.
:
Paper Title:
Year of Study
Year of Publication if exists, if not Working Paper.
:
Full Citation
APA reference of published work if exists - take it straight from Google Scholar.
:
Abstract
If no abstract exists, please include your own brief executive summary.
:
Definitive Link(s) to paper
Link to the paywalled journal article home page or for unpublished materials the de facto authentic version.

Multiple links can be included, separated by semi-colons.
:
Open Access Link(s) to paper
Where there is an open, public repository item, link to that (SSRN, Academia.edu, Zenodo, etc).

Multiple links can be included, separated by semi-colons.
:
Key Related Studies
These should be separated by semi-colon, formatted as e.g. Smith (2015), Smith and Jones (2015) or Smith, Jones and Black (2015) - maximum of 5 studies.

Please enter these studies in chronological order and include only those referenced within the study (i.e., do not infer relationships with studies published subsequently).

Search for them in abstract or intro. Also, phrases such as "we extend", "our study links more to" are key in finding the most relevant studies.
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Main results of study in propositional form (max 1000 chars)
Free text but with option for bullet-points.

Some papers highlight these results, some others not. Restate the main claims made by author(s) in 3 to 7 bullet points.
:
Related Fundamental Issues
Please select no more than 3 issues that are applicable.

There are a number of thematic areas on the Wiki that we want to use to categorise the studies.
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Related Evidence Based Policy
Please select no more than 3 issues that are applicable.

There are a number of policy areas on the Wiki that we want to use to categorise the studies.
:
JEL Disciplinary Classification(s)
Select those that are explicitly included in the study, or that you are confident of being able to infer correct. These should typically be no more than 4 disciplines.

A full, more readable list of the categories is available from the JEL website.
:
  • A: General Economics and Teaching
    • A1: General Economics
      • A10: General
      • A11: Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists
      • A12: Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
      • A13: Relation of Economics to Social Values
      • A14: Sociology of Economics
      • A19: Other
    • A2: Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
      • A20: General
      • A21: Pre-college
      • A22: Undergraduate
      • A23: Graduate
      • A29: Other
    • A3: Collective Works
      • A30: General
      • A31: Collected Writings of Individuals
      • A32: Collective Volumes
      • A33: Handbooks
      • A39: Other
  • B: History of Economic Thought; Methodology; and Heterodox Approaches
    • B0: General
      • B00: General
    • B1: History of Economic Thought through 1925
      • B10: General
      • B11: Preclassical (Ancient; Medieval; Mercantilist; Physiocratic)
      • B12: Classical (includes Adam Smith)
      • B13: Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian; Marshallian; Walrasian; Stockholm School)
      • B14: Socialist • Marxist
      • B15: Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary
      • B16: Quantitative and Mathematical
      • B19: Other
    • B2: History of Economic Thought since 1925
      • B20: General
      • B21: Microeconomics
      • B22: Macroeconomics
      • B23: Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
      • B24: Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian
      • B25: Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian
      • B26: Financial Economics
      • B29: Other
    • B3: History of Economic Thought: Individuals
      • B30: General
      • B31: Individuals
      • B32: Obituaries
    • B4: Economic Methodology
      • B40: General
      • B41: Economic Methodology
      • B49: Other
    • B5: Current Heterodox Approaches
      • B50: General
      • B51: Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian
      • B52: Institutional • Evolutionary
      • B53: Austrian
      • B54: Feminist Economics
      • B59: Other
  • C: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
    • C0: General
      • C00: General
      • C01: Econometrics
      • C02: Mathematical Methods
    • C1: Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
      • C10: General
      • C11: Bayesian Analysis: General
      • C12: Hypothesis Testing: General
      • C13: Estimation: General
      • C14: Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
      • C15: Statistical Simulation Methods: General
      • C18: Methodological Issues: General
      • C19: Other
    • C2: Single Equation Models • Single Variables
      • C20: General
      • C21: Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions
      • C22: Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes
      • C23: Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
      • C24: Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models
      • C25: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions
      • C26: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
      • C29: Other
    • C3: Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables
      • C30: General
      • C31: Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models
      • C32: Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes
      • C33: Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
      • C34: Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models
      • C35: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions
      • C36: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
      • C38: Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models
      • C39: Other
    • C4: Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
      • C40: General
      • C41: Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies
      • C43: Index Numbers and Aggregation
      • C44: Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory
      • C45: Neural Networks and Related Topics
      • C46: Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics
      • C49: Other
    • C5: Econometric Modeling
      • C50: General
      • C51: Model Construction and Estimation
      • C52: Model Evaluation; Validation; and Selection
      • C53: Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods
      • C54: Quantitative Policy Modeling
      • C55: Modeling with Large Data Sets
      • C57: Econometrics of Games
      • C58: Financial Econometrics
      • C59: Other
    • C6: Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
      • C60: General
      • C61: Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis
      • C62: Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
      • C63: Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling
      • C65: Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
      • C67: Input–Output Models
      • C68: Computable General Equilibrium Models
      • C69: Other
    • C7: Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
      • C70: General
      • C71: Cooperative Games
      • C72: Noncooperative Games
      • C73: Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games
      • C78: Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory
      • C79: Other
    • C8: Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs
      • C80: General
      • C81: Methodology for Collecting; Estimating; and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access
      • C82: Methodology for Collecting; Estimating; and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access
      • C83: Survey Methods • Sampling Methods
      • C87: Econometric Software
      • C88: Other Computer Software
      • C89: Other
    • C9: Design of Experiments
      • C90: General
      • C91: Laboratory; Individual Behavior
      • C92: Laboratory; Group Behavior
      • C93: Field Experiments
      • C99: Other
  • D: Microeconomics
    • D0: General
      • D00: General
      • D01: Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
      • D02: Institutions: Design; Formation; and Operations
      • D03: Behavioral Microeconomics • Underlying Principles
      • D04: Microeconomic Policy: Formulation • Implementation • Evaluation
    • D1: Household Behavior and Family Economics
      • D10: General
      • D11: Consumer Economics: Theory
      • D12: Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
      • D13: Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
      • D14: Household Saving; Personal Finance
      • D18: Consumer Protection
      • D19: Other
    • D2: Production and Organizations
      • D20: General
      • D21: Firm Behavior: Theory
      • D22: Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
      • D23: Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights
      • D24: Production • Cost • Capital • Capital; Total Factor; and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity
      • D29: Other
    • D3: Distribution
      • D30: General
      • D31: Personal Income; Wealth; and Their Distributions
      • D33: Factor Income Distribution
      • D39: Other
    • D4: Market Structure and Pricing
      • D40: General
      • D41: Perfect Competition
      • D42: Monopoly
      • D43: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
      • D44: Auctions
      • D45: Rationing • Licensing
      • D46: Value Theory
      • D47: Market Design
      • D49: Other
    • D5: General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
      • D50: General
      • D51: Exchange and Production Economies
      • D52: Incomplete Markets
      • D53: Financial Markets
      • D57: Input–Output Tables and Analysis
      • D58: Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
      • D59: Other
    • D6: Welfare Economics
      • D60: General
      • D61: Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis
      • D62: Externalities
      • D63: Equity; Justice; Inequality; and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
      • D64: Altruism • Philanthropy
      • D69: Other
    • D7: Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
      • D70: General
      • D71: Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations
      • D72: Political Processes: Rent-Seeking; Lobbying; Elections; Legislatures; and Voting Behavior
      • D73: Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption
      • D74: Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances
      • D78: Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
      • D79: Other
    • D8: Information; Knowledge; and Uncertainty
      • D80: General
      • D81: Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
      • D82: Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design
      • D83: Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief
      • D84: Expectations • Speculations
      • D85: Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
      • D86: Economics of Contract: Theory
      • D87: Neuroeconomics
      • D89: Other
    • D9: Intertemporal Choice
      • D90: General
      • D91: Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving
      • D92: Intertemporal Firm Choice; Investment; Capacity; and Financing
      • D99: Other
  • E: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
    • E0: General
      • E00: General
      • E01: Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts
      • E02: Institutions and the Macroeconomy
      • E03: Behavioral Macroeconomics
    • E1: General Aggregative Models
      • E10: General
      • E11: Marxian • Sraffian • Institutional • Evolutionary
      • E12: Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian
      • E13: Neoclassical
      • E16: Social Accounting Matrix
      • E17: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • E19: Other
    • E2: Consumption; Saving; Production; Investment; Labor Markets; and Informal Economy
      • E20: General
      • E21: Consumption • Saving • Wealth
      • E22: Capital • Investment • Capacity
      • E23: Production
      • E24: Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital
      • E25: Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
      • E26: Informal Economy • Underground Economy
      • E27: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • E29: Other
    • E3: Prices; Business Fluctuations; and Cycles
      • E30: General
      • E31: Price Level • Inflation • Deflation
      • E32: Business Fluctuations • Cycles
      • E37: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • E39: Other
    • E4: Money and Interest Rates
      • E40: General
      • E41: Demand for Money
      • E42: Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems
      • E43: Interest Rates: Determination; Term Structure; and Effects
      • E44: Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
      • E47: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • E49: Other
    • E5: Monetary Policy; Central Banking; and the Supply of Money and Credit
      • E50: General
      • E51: Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers
      • E52: Monetary Policy
      • E58: Central Banks and Their Policies
      • E59: Other
    • E6: Macroeconomic Policy; Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance; and General Outlook
      • E60: General
      • E61: Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination
      • E62: Fiscal Policy
      • E63: Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy
      • E64: Incomes Policy • Price Policy
      • E65: Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
      • E66: General Outlook and Conditions
      • E69: Other
  • F: International Economics
    • F0: General
      • F00: General
      • F01: Global Outlook
      • F02: International Economic Order
    • F1: Trade
      • F10: General
      • F11: Neoclassical Models of Trade
      • F12: Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation
      • F13: Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations
      • F14: Empirical Studies of Trade
      • F15: Economic Integration
      • F16: Trade and Labor Market Interactions
      • F17: Trade Forecasting and Simulation
      • F18: Trade and Environment
      • F19: Other
    • F2: International Factor Movements and International Business
      • F20: General
      • F21: International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements
      • F22: International Migration
      • F23: Multinational Firms • International Business
      • F24: Remittances
      • F29: Other
    • F3: International Finance
      • F30: General
      • F31: Foreign Exchange
      • F32: Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements
      • F33: International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
      • F34: International Lending and Debt Problems
      • F35: Foreign Aid
      • F36: Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
      • F37: International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • F38: International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
      • F39: Other
    • F4: Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
      • F40: General
      • F41: Open Economy Macroeconomics
      • F42: International Policy Coordination and Transmission
      • F43: Economic Growth of Open Economies
      • F44: International Business Cycles
      • F47: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
      • F49: Other
    • F5: International Relations; National Security; and International Political Economy
      • F50: General
      • F51: International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions
      • F52: National Security • Economic Nationalism
      • F53: International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations
      • F54: Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism
      • F55: International Institutional Arrangements
      • F59: Other
    • F6: Economic Impacts of Globalization
      • F60: General
      • F61: Microeconomic Impacts
      • F62: Macroeconomic Impacts
      • F63: Economic Development
      • F64: Environment
      • F65: Finance
      • F66: Labor
      • F68: Policy
      • F69: Other
  • G: Financial Economics
    • G0: General
      • G00: General
      • G01: Financial Crises
      • G02: Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles
    • G1: General Financial Markets
      • G10: General
      • G11: Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions
      • G12: Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates
      • G13: Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing
      • G14: Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading
      • G15: International Financial Markets
      • G17: Financial Forecasting and Simulation
      • G18: Government Policy and Regulation
      • G19: Other
    • G2: Financial Institutions and Services
      • G20: General
      • G21: Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages
      • G22: Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies
      • G23: Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors
      • G24: Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies
      • G28: Government Policy and Regulation
      • G29: Other
    • G3: Corporate Finance and Governance
      • G30: General
      • G31: Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity
      • G32: Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill
      • G33: Bankruptcy • Liquidation
      • G34: Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance
      • G35: Payout Policy
      • G38: Government Policy and Regulation
      • G39: Other
  • H: Public Economics
    • H0: General
      • H00: General
    • H1: Structure and Scope of Government
      • H10: General
      • H11: Structure; Scope; and Performance of Government
      • H12: Crisis Management
      • H19: Other
    • H2: Taxation; Subsidies; and Revenue
      • H20: General
      • H21: Efficiency • Optimal Taxation
      • H22: Incidence
      • H23: Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
      • H24: Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
      • H25: Business Taxes and Subsidies
      • H26: Tax Evasion
      • H27: Other Sources of Revenue
      • H29: Other
    • H3: Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
      • H30: General
      • H31: Household
      • H32: Firm
      • H39: Other
    • H4: Publicly Provided Goods
      • H40: General
      • H41: Public Goods
      • H42: Publicly Provided Private Goods
      • H43: Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate
      • H44: Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
      • H49: Other
    • H5: National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
      • H50: General
      • H51: Government Expenditures and Health
      • H52: Government Expenditures and Education
      • H53: Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
      • H54: Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
      • H55: Social Security and Public Pensions
      • H56: National Security and War
      • H57: Procurement
      • H59: Other
    • H6: National Budget; Deficit; and Debt
      • H60: General
      • H61: Budget • Budget Systems
      • H62: Deficit • Surplus
      • H63: Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt
      • H68: Forecasts of Budgets; Deficits; and Debt
      • H69: Other
    • H7: State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations
      • H70: General
      • H71: State and Local Taxation; Subsidies; and Revenue
      • H72: State and Local Budget and Expenditures
      • H73: Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
      • H74: State and Local Borrowing
      • H75: State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions
      • H76: State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
      • H77: Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession
      • H79: Other
    • H8: Miscellaneous Issues
      • H80: General
      • H81: Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts
      • H82: Governmental Property
      • H83: Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits
      • H84: Disaster Aid
      • H87: International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods
      • H89: Other
  • I: Health; Education; and Welfare
    • I0: General
      • I00: General
    • I1: Health
      • I10: General
      • I11: Analysis of Health Care Markets
      • I12: Health Production
      • I13: Health Insurance; Public and Private
      • I14: Health and Inequality
      • I15: Health and Economic Development
      • I18: Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health
      • I19: Other
    • I2: Education and Research Institutions
      • I20: General
      • I21: Analysis of Education
      • I22: Educational Finance • Financial Aid
      • I23: Higher Education • Research Institutions
      • I24: Education and Inequality
      • I25: Education and Economic Development
      • I28: Government Policy
      • I29: Other
    • I3: Welfare; Well-Being; and Poverty
      • I30: General
      • I31: General Welfare; Well-Being
      • I32: Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
      • I38: Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
      • I39: Other
  • J: Labor and Demographic Economics
    • J0: General
      • J00: General
      • J01: Labor Economics: General
      • J08: Labor Economics Policies
    • J1: Demographic Economics
      • J10: General
      • J11: Demographic Trends; Macroeconomic Effects; and Forecasts
      • J12: Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse
      • J13: Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth
      • J14: Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination
      • J15: Economics of Minorities; Races; Indigenous Peoples; and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination
      • J16: Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination
      • J17: Value of Life • Forgone Income
      • J18: Public Policy
      • J19: Other
    • J2: Demand and Supply of Labor
      • J20: General
      • J21: Labor Force and Employment; Size; and Structure
      • J22: Time Allocation and Labor Supply
      • J23: Labor Demand
      • J24: Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity
      • J26: Retirement • Retirement Policies
      • J28: Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy
      • J29: Other
    • J3: Wages; Compensation; and Labor Costs
      • J30: General
      • J31: Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials
      • J32: Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions
      • J33: Compensation Packages • Payment Methods
      • J38: Public Policy
      • J39: Other
    • J4: Particular Labor Markets
      • J40: General
      • J41: Labor Contracts
      • J42: Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets
      • J43: Agricultural Labor Markets
      • J44: Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing
      • J45: Public Sector Labor Markets
      • J46: Informal Labor Markets
      • J47: Coercive Labor Markets
      • J48: Public Policy
      • J49: Other
    • J5: Labor–Management Relations; Trade Unions; and Collective Bargaining
      • J50: General
      • J51: Trade Unions: Objectives; Structure; and Effects
      • J52: Dispute Resolution: Strikes; Arbitration; and Mediation • Collective Bargaining
      • J53: Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence
      • J54: Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership
      • J58: Public Policy
      • J59: Other
    • J6: Mobility; Unemployment; Vacancies; and Immigrant Workers
      • J60: General
      • J61: Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers
      • J62: Job; Occupational; and Intergenerational Mobility
      • J63: Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs
      • J64: Unemployment: Models; Duration; Incidence; and Job Search
      • J65: Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings
      • J68: Public Policy
      • J69: Other
    • J7: Labor Discrimination
      • J70: General
      • J71: Discrimination
      • J78: Public Policy
      • J79: Other
    • J8: Labor Standards: National and International
      • J80: General
      • J81: Working Conditions
      • J82: Labor Force Composition
      • J83: Workers' Rights
      • J88: Public Policy
      • J89: Other
  • K: Law and Economics
    • K0: General
      • K00: General
    • K1: Basic Areas of Law
      • K10: General
      • K11: Property Law
      • K12: Contract Law
      • K13: Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics
      • K14: Criminal Law
      • K19: Other
    • K2: Regulation and Business Law
      • K20: General
      • K21: Antitrust Law
      • K22: Business and Securities Law
      • K23: Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
      • K29: Other
    • K3: Other Substantive Areas of Law
      • K30: General
      • K31: Labor Law
      • K32: Environmental; Health; and Safety Law
      • K33: International Law
      • K34: Tax Law
      • K35: Personal Bankruptcy Law
      • K36: Family and Personal Law
      • K37: Immigration Law
      • K39: Other
    • K4: Legal Procedure; the Legal System; and Illegal Behavior
      • K40: General
      • K41: Litigation Process
      • K42: Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
      • K49: Other
  • L: Industrial Organization
    • L0: General
      • L00: General
    • L1: Market Structure; Firm Strategy; and Market Performance
      • L10: General
      • L11: Production; Pricing; and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms
      • L12: Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies
      • L13: Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
      • L14: Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks
      • L15: Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility
      • L16: Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices
      • L17: Open Source Products and Markets
      • L19: Other
    • L2: Firm Objectives; Organization; and Behavior
      • L20: General
      • L21: Business Objectives of the Firm
      • L22: Firm Organization and Market Structure
      • L23: Organization of Production
      • L24: Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing
      • L25: Firm Performance: Size; Diversification; and Scope
      • L26: Entrepreneurship
      • L29: Other
    • L3: Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
      • L30: General
      • L31: Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs
      • L32: Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises
      • L33: Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out
      • L38: Public Policy
      • L39: Other
    • L4: Antitrust Issues and Policies
      • L40: General
      • L41: Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
      • L42: Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts
      • L43: Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
      • L44: Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises; Nonprofit Institutions; and Professional Organizations
      • L49: Other
    • L5: Regulation and Industrial Policy
      • L50: General
      • L51: Economics of Regulation
      • L52: Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods
      • L53: Enterprise Policy
      • L59: Other
    • L6: Industry Studies: Manufacturing
      • L60: General
      • L61: Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics
      • L62: Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment
      • L63: Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment
      • L64: Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments
      • L65: Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology
      • L66: Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits
      • L67: Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing; Textiles; Shoes; and Leather
      • L68: Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables
      • L69: Other
    • L7: Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
      • L70: General
      • L71: Mining; Extraction; and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
      • L72: Mining; Extraction; and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
      • L73: Forest Products
      • L74: Construction
      • L78: Government Policy
      • L79: Other
    • L8: Industry Studies: Services
      • L80: General
      • L81: Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce
      • L82: Entertainment • Media
      • L83: Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism
      • L84: Personal; Professional; and Business Services
      • L85: Real Estate Services
      • L86: Information and Internet Services • Computer Software
      • L87: Postal and Delivery Services
      • L88: Government Policy
      • L89: Other
    • L9: Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
      • L90: General
      • L91: Transportation: General
      • L92: Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
      • L93: Air Transportation
      • L94: Electric Utilities
      • L95: Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities
      • L96: Telecommunications
      • L97: Utilities: General
      • L98: Government Policy
      • L99: Other
  • M: Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting
    • M0: General
      • M00: General
    • M1: Business Administration
      • M10: General
      • M11: Production Management
      • M12: Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation
      • M13: New Firms • Startups
      • M14: Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility
      • M15: IT Management
      • M16: International Business Administration
      • M19: Other
    • M2: Business Economics
      • M20: General
      • M21: Business Economics
      • M29: Other
    • M3: Marketing and Advertising
      • M30: General
      • M31: Marketing
      • M37: Advertising
      • M38: Government Policy and Regulation
      • M39: Other
    • M4: Accounting and Auditing
      • M40: General
      • M41: Accounting
      • M42: Auditing
      • M48: Government Policy and Regulation
      • M49: Other
    • M5: Personnel Economics
      • M50: General
      • M51: Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions
      • M52: Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
      • M53: Training
      • M54: Labor Management
      • M55: Labor Contracting Devices
      • M59: Other
  • N: Economic History
    • N0: General
      • N00: General
      • N01: Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
    • N1: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations
      • N10: General; International; or Comparative
      • N11: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N12: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N13: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N14: Europe: 1913–
      • N15: Asia including Middle East
      • N16: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N17: Africa • Oceania
    • N2: Financial Markets and Institutions
      • N20: General; International; or Comparative
      • N21: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N22: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N23: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N24: Europe: 1913–
      • N25: Asia including Middle East
      • N26: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N27: Africa • Oceania
    • N3: Labor and Consumers; Demography; Education; Health; Welfare; Income; Wealth; Religion; and Philanthropy
      • N30: General; International; or Comparative
      • N31: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N32: U.S. • Canada: 1913-
      • N33: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N34: Europe: 1913-
      • N35: Asia including Middle East
      • N36: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N37: Africa • Oceania
    • N4: Government; War; Law; International Relations; and Regulation
      • N40: General; International; or Comparative
      • N41: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N42: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N43: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N44: Europe: 1913–
      • N45: Asia including Middle East
      • N46: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N47: Africa • Oceania
    • N5: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; and Extractive Industries
      • N50: General; International; or Comparative
      • N51: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N52: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N53: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N54: Europe: 1913–
      • N55: Asia including Middle East
      • N56: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N57: Africa • Oceania
    • N6: Manufacturing and Construction
      • N60: General; International; or Comparative
      • N61: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N62: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N63: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N64: Europe: 1913–
      • N65: Asia including Middle East
      • N66: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N67: Africa • Oceania
    • N7: Transport; Trade; Energy; Technology; and Other Services
      • N70: General; International; or Comparative
      • N71: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N72: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N73: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N74: Europe: 1913–
      • N75: Asia including Middle East
      • N76: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N77: Africa • Oceania
    • N8: Micro-Business History
      • N80: General; International; or Comparative
      • N81: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N82: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N83: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N84: Europe: 1913–
      • N85: Asia including Middle East
      • N86: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N87: Africa • Oceania
    • N9: Regional and Urban History
      • N90: General; International; or Comparative
      • N91: U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
      • N92: U.S. • Canada: 1913–
      • N93: Europe: Pre-1913
      • N94: Europe: 1913–
      • N95: Asia including Middle East
      • N96: Latin America • Caribbean
      • N97: Africa • Oceania
  • O: Economic Development; Technological Change; and Growth
    • O1: Economic Development
      • O10: General
      • O11: Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
      • O12: Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
      • O13: Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products
      • O14: Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology
      • O15: Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration
      • O16: Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance
      • O17: Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements
      • O18: Urban; Rural; Regional; and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure
      • O19: International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations
    • O2: Development Planning and Policy
      • O20: General
      • O21: Planning Models • Planning Policy
      • O22: Project Analysis
      • O23: Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
      • O24: Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy
      • O25: Industrial Policy
      • O29: Other
    • O3: Technological Change • Research and Development • Intellectual Property Rights
      • O30: General
      • O31: Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
      • O32: Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
      • O33: Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes
      • O34: Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
      • O38: Government Policy
      • O39: Other
    • O4: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
      • O40: General
      • O41: One; Two; and Multisector Growth Models
      • O42: Monetary Growth Models
      • O43: Institutions and Growth
      • O44: Environment and Growth
      • O47: Measurement of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence
      • O49: Other
    • O5: Economywide Country Studies
      • O50: General
      • O51: U.S. • Canada
      • O52: Europe
      • O53: Asia including Middle East
      • O54: Latin America • Caribbean
      • O55: Africa
      • O56: Oceania
      • O57: Comparative Studies of Countries
  • P: Economic Systems
    • P0: General
      • P00: General
    • P1: Capitalist Systems
      • P10: General
      • P11: Planning; Coordination; and Reform
      • P12: Capitalist Enterprises
      • P13: Cooperative Enterprises
      • P14: Property Rights
      • P16: Political Economy
      • P17: Performance and Prospects
      • P19: Other
    • P2: Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
      • P20: General
      • P21: Planning; Coordination; and Reform
      • P22: Prices
      • P23: Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population
      • P24: National Income; Product; and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
      • P25: Urban; Rural; and Regional Economics
      • P26: Political Economy • Property Rights
      • P27: Performance and Prospects
      • P28: Natural Resources • Energy • Environment
      • P29: Other
    • P3: Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
      • P30: General
      • P31: Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
      • P32: Collectives • Communes • Agriculture
      • P33: International Trade; Finance; Investment; Relations; and Aid
      • P34: Financial Economics
      • P35: Public Economics
      • P36: Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare; Income; Wealth; and Poverty
      • P37: Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior
      • P39: Other
    • P4: Other Economic Systems
      • P40: General
      • P41: Planning; Coordination; and Reform
      • P42: Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population
      • P43: Public Economics • Financial Economics
      • P44: National Income; Product; and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
      • P45: International Trade; Finance; Investment; and Aid
      • P46: Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare; Income; Wealth; and Poverty
      • P47: Performance and Prospects
      • P48: Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies
      • P49: Other
    • P5: Comparative Economic Systems
      • P50: General
      • P51: Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
      • P52: Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
      • P59: Other
  • Q: Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0: General
      • Q00: General
      • Q01: Sustainable Development
      • Q02: Global Commodity Markets
    • Q1: Agriculture
      • Q10: General
      • Q11: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices
      • Q12: Micro Analysis of Farm Firms; Farm Households; and Farm Input Markets
      • Q13: Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness
      • Q14: Agricultural Finance
      • Q15: Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment
      • Q16: R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services
      • Q17: Agriculture in International Trade
      • Q18: Agricultural Policy • Food Policy
      • Q19: Other
    • Q2: Renewable Resources and Conservation
      • Q20: General
      • Q21: Demand and Supply • Prices
      • Q22: Fishery • Aquaculture
      • Q23: Forestry
      • Q24: Land
      • Q25: Water
      • Q26: Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
      • Q27: Issues in International Trade
      • Q28: Government Policy
      • Q29: Other
    • Q3: Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
      • Q30: General
      • Q31: Demand and Supply • Prices
      • Q32: Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
      • Q34: Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
      • Q33: Resource Booms
      • Q37: Issues in International Trade
      • Q38: Government Policy
      • Q39: Other
    • Q4: Energy
      • Q40: General
      • Q41: Demand and Supply • Prices
      • Q42: Alternative Energy Sources
      • Q43: Energy and the Macroeconomy
      • Q47: Energy Forecasting
      • Q48: Government Policy
      • Q49: Other
    • Q5: Environmental Economics
      • Q50: General
      • Q51: Valuation of Environmental Effects
      • Q52: Pollution Control Adoption Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects
      • Q53: Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling
      • Q54: Climate • Natural Disasters • Global Warming
      • Q55: Technological Innovation
      • Q56: Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth
      • Q57: Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology
      • Q58: Government Policy
      • Q59: Other
  • R: Urban; Rural; Regional; Real Estate; and Transportation Economics
    • R0: General
      • R00: General
    • R1: General Regional Economics
      • R10: General
      • R11: Regional Economic Activity: Growth; Development; Environmental Issues; and Changes
      • R12: Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
      • R13: General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
      • R14: Land Use Patterns
      • R15: Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models
      • R19: Other
    • R2: Household Analysis
      • R20: General
      • R21: Housing Demand
      • R22: Other Demand
      • R23: Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics
      • R28: Government Policy
      • R29: Other
    • R3: Real Estate Markets; Spatial Production Analysis; and Firm Location
      • R30: General
      • R31: Housing Supply and Markets
      • R32: Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
      • R33: Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
      • R38: Government Policy
      • R39: Other
    • R4: Transportation Economics
      • R40: General
      • R41: Transportation: Demand; Supply; and Congestion • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise
      • R42: Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning
      • R48: Government Pricing and Policy
      • R49: Other
    • R5: Regional Government Analysis
      • R50: General
      • R51: Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
      • R52: Land Use and Other Regulations
      • R53: Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock
      • R58: Regional Development Planning and Policy
      • R59: Other
  • Y: Miscellaneous Categories
    • Y1: Data: Tables and Charts
      • Y10: Data: Tables and Charts
    • Y2: Introductory Material
      • Y20: Introductory Material
    • Y3: Book Reviews (unclassified)
      • Y30: Book Reviews (unclassified)
    • Y4: Dissertations (unclassified)
      • Y40: Dissertations (unclassified)
    • Y5: Further Reading (unclassified)
      • Y50: Further Reading (unclassified)
    • Y6: Excerpts
      • Y60: Excerpts
    • Y7: No Author General Discussions
      • Y70: No Author General Discussions
    • Y8: Related Disciplines
      • Y80: Related Disciplines
    • Y9: Other
      • Y90: Other
      • Y91: Pictures and Maps
  • Z: Other Special Topics
    • Z0: General
      • Z00: General
    • Z1: Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology
      • Z10: General
      • Z11: Economics of the Arts and Literature
      • Z12: Religion
      • Z13: Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Social and Economic Stratification
      • Z18: Public Policy
      • Z19: Other
Policy Implications Implied or Stated By the Author
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Description of Data
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