Ahn and Yooney (2008)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Ahn and Yoon (2008)
Title: On the Impact of Digital Music Distribution
Author(s): Ahn, I., Yoon, K.
Year: 2008
Citation: Ahn, Illtae, and Kiho Yoon. On the impact of digital music distribution. CESifo Economic Studies 55.2 (2009): 306-325.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This study sets up a representative model that enables a comparative static analysis of two empirical observations about the music industry: the sales decline and the price constancy. The authors then fit the model to these observations. The study also utilises a literature review of 13 previous empirical studies.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2002 to 2007
Funder(s):
  • The second author has benefited from the visit to the Institute of Innovation Research of Hitotsubashi University, whose generous provision of research opportunity is gratefully acknowledged

Abstract

We present a framework to evaluate the impact of digital music distribution. We set up a representative model that enables the comparative static analysis. We then interpret two empirical observations about the music industry, the sales decline and the price constancy, and fit the model to these observations. We find that, while the impact of digitalization on the producers’ profits is probably negative, it may not be as severe as the observed impact on the quantity. On the other hand, the impact of digitalization on the consumer surplus is unambiguously positive. The impact on the social welfare is rather ambiguous in general, but the social welfare may increase for plausible parameter values.

Main Results of the Study

  • Result 1: The observed price constancy implies that the sampling effect is significant. The quantity decrease may be due to the substitution effect as well as the producer’s price strategy.
  • Result 2: Empirical facts support the conclusion that (i) the profit decreases; (ii) the consumer surplus increases; and (iii) the social welfare either increases or decreases due to the digitalization. In our model, the social welfare may increase for plausible parameter values.
  • Result 3: Legal or technological measures to reverse the substitution effect caused by digital music distribution may decrease the social welfare further.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • First, though the producers’ profits have probably shrunk,the decrease may not be as severe as the observed sales decline.
  • Second, the consumer surplus has unambiguously increased.
  • Third, the social welfare may have increased for plausible parameter values.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 1
Level of aggregation: Music sales data
Period of material under study: 1973 to 2003