Akbulut and Donmez (2018)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Akbulut and Donmez (2018)
Title: Predictors of digital piracy among Turkish undergraduate students
Author(s): Akbulut, Y., Donmez, O.
Year: 2018
Citation: Akbulut, Y. and Donmez, O. (2018) Predictors of digital piracy among Turkish undergraduate students. Telematics and Informatics, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp1324-1334
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
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About the Data
Data Description: The research is split into two studies:

Study 1 involved an analysis of survey responses by 465 undergraduate students from Turkish universities. Survey responses were based on scale measurements, akin to a Likert scale.

Study 2 involved an analysis of survey responses from 190 undergraduate students from Turkish universities. Measurements were similar to study 1, with the addition of 12 new items to factor in new social desirability measures.

Data Type: Primary data
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Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
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Abstract

“Unauthorized downloading or duplication of copyrighted software has been a serious financial and ethical concern. Thus, the current research addressed predictors of digital piracy across two Turkish undergraduate samples. In Study 1, two structural models were tested with 465 students. Latent variables of interest were measured through 21 indicators to address past piracy, present piracy, prosecution risk and piracy attitudes. Followed by the confirmation of the factor structure, two structural models were retained. In the first model, perceived likelihood of prosecution decreased piracy through full mediation of attitudes, whereas past piracy decreased it through partial mediation of attitudes. In the second model, both variables explained current piracy through full mediation of attitudes. In Study 2, 12 social desirability items were added to current measures and tested with a new group (n = 190). The measurement model was confirmed. While prosecution risk and social desirability was related, their contribution to current piracy behaviors was not significant. The links between past and present piracy and attitudes were still strong.”

Main Results of the Study

The research finds that there is a weak correlation between social desirability, prosecution risk, and perceptions of infringement. Instead, there is a positive relationship across past infringing behaviours, current infringing behaviours, and perceptions of infringement. Convenience, as inferred from regularity of PC use and competency, was not correlated with infringing behaviour.Infringement may be perceived as an acceptable social norm within the undergraduate community, which in turn forms habitual behaviour and thus predicts current infringement. In turn, this behaviour constructs perceptions and attitudes about infringement as either acceptable or unacceptable. The authors imply that past behaviours may therefore have the capacity to determine future behaviours in regards to infringement. Fear of prosecution, or “peer pressure” to be socially acceptable, are ineffective in reducing infringement.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The authors suggest that stronger enforcement measures or sanctions are unlikely to be effective in preventing infringement (as risk of prosecution is not a consistent determinant in predicting infringing behaviour). Instead, policymakers should focus on raising awareness of the unacceptability of infringing behaviours, particularly as the study indicates that students may perceive such behaviours as a non-problematic social norm.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
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Datasets

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