Al-Rafee and Dashti (2012)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Al-Rafee and Dashti (2012)
Title: A Cross Cultural Comparison of the Extended TPB: The Case of Digital Piracy
Author(s): Al-Rafee, S., Dashti, A. E.
Year: 2012
Citation: Al-Rafee, S., & Dashti, A. E. (2012). A Cross Cultural Comparison of the Extended TPB: The Case of Digital Piracy. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 15(1), 5-24.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The questionnaire was administered to undergraduate business students in both the U.S. and Kuwait. In total, the sample included 285 students in the U.S. sample (from the University of Arkansas, 58% male and 42% female); 328 students in the ME sample (from Kuwait University, 61% female and 39% male).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2012
Funder(s):
  • Not Stated

Abstract

This study examined a behavioral model (based on the theory of planned behavior), in two different cultures (in the U.S., and in the Middle East), within the context of digital piracy. The model was extended by adding moral obligation as a factor influencing intention to pirate digital media. The results show, that while the overall model was significant in predicting the piracy behavior across the two cultures, there were differences in the influence of the individual variables. Subjective norm was only significant in the Middle East, and moral obligation was highly significant in the U.S. sample (while being of low significance in the Middle Eastern sample). Attitude and perceived behavioral control were found to be at least moderately significant in both cultures.

Main Results of the Study

Results of the study were used to inform an economic model. This model demonstrated that moral obligation is a critical construct and plays a key role in the nomological network of digital piracy. This supported by findings such as:

  • It would seem the U.S. sample's behavior was highly influenced by the guilt feeling associated with the behavior as well as the ability to do such a behavior, followed by their attitude towards the behavior;
  • In the Middle East (ME) sample, it would seem the behavior was highly influenced by the subjects' attitude toward performing the piracy behavior, secondly by their ability to pirate, followed by any feelings of gilt towards the piracy behavior and opinions of people important to them;
  • Subjective norms (SN) was not a significant factor in the U.S. sample, while being significant in the ME sample. This can be justified using Hofstede's (2010) individualism cultural dimension, since the US is a highly individualistic society (resulting in non-significant SN factor), while the ME culture is highly collectivistic (resulting in a significant SN factor;

Overall, the US sample pirated more than the ME sample.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Given the differences in cultures, there is a need to employ different strategies for fighting piracy across different regions of the world.
  • The findings of this study can be used by law enforcement agencies in developing a game plan when tackling digital piracy and designing a system that targets and impacts beliefs toward moral obligations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 2
Level of aggregation: Country
Period of material under study: 2012


Sample size: 613
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2012