Andrés (2006b)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Andrés (2006)
Title: Software piracy and income inequality
Author(s): Andrés, A.R.
Year: 2006
Citation: Andrés, A. R. (2006). Software piracy and income inequality. Applied Economics Letters, 13(2), 101-105.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: This study uses data on income inequality from the World Income Inequality Database (WIID, 2000). It also uses data on software piracy published by the International Planning Research Corporation (IPRC) for the Business Software Alliance (BSA) and Software Information Industry Association (SIIA) (IPRC, 2003).
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
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Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
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Abstract

This paper investigates the extent to which income inequality influences national piracy rates across a sample of 34 countries. Economic inequality seems to have a negative significant effect on national rates of piracy. Consistent with previous studies, we also find that judicial efficiency affects piracy rates. Additionally, research results show that income and education are not important determinants of piracy rates.

Main Results of the Study

This study shows that income inequality appears to have a negative and significant effect on piracy rates, and hence supporting Husted’s result (2000). The regression results also reveal that the efficiency of the judicial system is an important factor when explaining cross-national variations in piracy rates. No significant association was found between income, education and piracy rates. Overall, the results are in line with previous empirical research.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The authors find that higher levels of judicial efficiency are associated with lower software piracy rates. Only the law variable seems to impact on piracy rates. The coefficient on rule of law is negative and statistically significant. This finding suggests that the efficiency of the legal system might act a deterrent factor of piracy behaviour, hence supporting previous findings (Holm, 2003).

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets