Chan and Lai (2011)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Chan and Lai (2011)
Title: Does Ethical Ideology Affect Software Piracy Attitude and Behaviour? An Empirical Investigation of Computer Users in China
Author(s): Chan, R. Y. K., Lai, J. W. M.
Year: 2011
Citation: Chan, R. Y. K. and Lai, J. W. M. 2011. Does Ethical Ideology Affect Software Piracy Attitude and Behaviour? An Empirical Investigation of Computer Users in China European Journal of Information Systems, 20, 659-673.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Rooij, Fine, Yanyan and Wu (2015)
About the Data
Data Description: Overall, 57% of the 266 respondents were male and 40% of the respondents were unmarried. 90% of the respondents reported that they had access to computers and the Internet at home while 70% of the respondents were working adults, 28% were students, and 2% were either retirees or unemployed. The median educational level, age, and monthly personal income of the respondents were high school completion, 25–29 years, and RMB 2,001–3,000 (US$1=RMB6.82), respectively. On average, respondents spent 19.2 h per week on the Internet. A survey was conducted through door-to-door personal interviews in Guangzhou.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2011
Funder(s):
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Abstract

This study empirically examines Chinese computer users’ ethical ideology and its relationship to their software piracy attitude and behaviour. The investigation reveals several important findings. First, cluster analysis results show that Chinese computer users can be divided into four ethical ideology types(i.e., situationists, absolutists, subjectivists, and exceptionists) reasonably consistent with Forsyth’s taxonomy. Second, when compared with situationists, absolutists, and exceptionists, subjectivists are found to have the least unfavourable attitude towards software piracy and are most frequently engaged in software piracy. Third, Chinese computer users’ ideological relativism exerts a stronger influence on their software piracy attitude and behaviour than does their ideological idealism. The findings suggest that the government, and authentic software developers and vendors should focus on subjectivists as their target audience of anti-software piracy communications. These policy makers and practitioners should also make concerted efforts to help subjectivists better realise how their software piracy act may damage parties ‘proximate’ to themselves so as to lower the rate of software piracy.

Main Results of the Study

There were 5 hypothesis' tested in this paper: Among Chinese computer users adhering to different ethical ideologies (i.e., situationists, absolutists, subjectivists, and exceptionists)...

  1. Absolutists will exhibit the least favourable attitude towards software piracy (H1a), and be least frequently engaged in software piracy (H1b).
  2. Subjectivists will exhibit the most favourable attitude towards software piracy (H2a), and be most frequently engaged in software piracy (H2b).
  3. When compared with Chinese computer users adhering to the situationist ethical ideology type, those adhering to the exceptionist ethical ideology type will exhibit a more favourable attitude towards software piracy (H3a), and be more frequently engaged in software piracy (H3b).
  4. Relativism rather than idealism exerts a stronger influence on Chinese computer users’ software piracy attitude and behaviour.
  5. Chinese computer users’ software piracy attitude is positively related to their software piracy behaviour

Results:

  • Both situationists and absolutists (rather than just absolutists) exhibited similar levels of unfavourable attitudinal and behavioural responses towards software piracy.
  • Subjectivists held the most favourable attitudinal and behavioural responses towards software piracy.
  • Exceptionalists had more favourable software piracy attitude and more frequent software piracy behaviour compared with situationists.
  • Relativism and idealism exerted a significant direct effect on software piracy behaviour, a comparison of the two relevant standardised regression estimates indicated that relativism was far more influential than idealism.
  • The findings suggest a significant influence of software piracy attitude on the corresponding behaviour.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The findings also help policy makers, and genuine (mostly foreign) software developers and vendors to better understand the ethical reasoning of Chinese software pirates and ultimately devise more effective measures to combat their wrongdoing.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 266
Level of aggregation: Individual data
Period of material under study: 2011