Cheliotis (2007)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Cheliotis (2007)
Title: Remix Culture: An Empirical Analysis of Creative Reuse and the Licensing of Digital Media in Online Communities
Author(s): Cheliotis , G
Year: 2007
Citation: Cheliotis, G. (2007). Remix culture: an empirical analysis of creative reuse and the licensing of digital media in online communities.
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: 7,484 music items, collected june 2007. 3,982 remixed items, or 53% of total..

There are also a graph with data from january 2008.

Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • June 2008
Funder(s):

Abstract

In 2003, the US recording industry, hoping to change what some view as a ‘culture of piracy’, initiated lawsuits against its own consumers. What is this culture of piracy and what is at stake in trying to change it? In this article, I take an ethnographic look at music file-sharing, and compare the situation in the US with Japan, the second largest music market in the world. My findings are based on fieldwork in Tokyo, and surveys and discussions with US college students. By considering the ways social dynamics and cultural orientations guide uses of digital media technology, I argue that a legal and political focus on ‘piracy’ ignores crucial aspects of file-sharing, and is misleading in the assumptions it makes for policy. A focus on fan participation in media success provides an alternative perspective on how to encourage flourishing music cultures.

Main Results of the Study

  • Author provides visual representations of the interactions within the ccMixer network.
  • Reuse can span multiple generations of works and has the potential double the output of a community.
  • The propensity to reuse falls with the breadth and depth of reuse.
  • Extrinsic incentives in the form of competitions can boost production by authors and attract new authors to the community. However most competition works are never used again and the motivational effects end when the competition ends.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

A policy to promote remixes and reuse could increase creative production.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Green-tick.png
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 3,982
Level of aggregation:
Period of material under study: january 2008


Sample size: 7484
Level of aggregation:
Period of material under study: january 2008