Chiang and Assane (2002)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Chiang and Assane (2002)
Title: Software Copyright Infringement Among College Students
Author(s): Chiang, E. P., Assane, D.
Year: 2002
Citation: Chiang, E., & Assane, D. (2002). Software copyright infringement among college students. Applied Economics, 34(2), 157-166.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Acilar and Aydemir (2010), Baker and Cunningham (2006), Chiang and Assane (2008), Fetscherin and Lattemann (2007), Maffioletti and Ramello (2004)
About the Data
Data Description: The data for this study were obtained by a random sample of college students by an anonymous survey of U.S. college students. In order to avoid a selectivity bias of a particular group, the data were collected in settings where a mixture of different students were present, including non-specialized classes that have a variety of ages and majors present, in dormitory settings that have a fair mixture of upper and lower class students, and on four different campuses. The campuses were chosen based on their diversity of region, size, age range, ethnic diversity, and the prevalence of different majors. The overall sample consisted of 148 computer owners as well as non-computer owners, having a variety of backgrounds and majors.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2002
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

In recent years, the issue of infringement in the software industry has gained international attention as the demand for software continues to grow. The growing presence of unauthorized reproduction of copyrighted products inhibits full potential growth and discourages creative activity. This study analyses the extent of software copyright infringement among college students and attitudes of these students with regard to risk of apprehension and conviction. We find a significantly higher likelihood of infringement for computer majors and male students, and a decrease in the likelihood of infringement for older students. We also uncover differences in attitudes toward risk of apprehension and conviction between majors in scientific fields and those in business and economics. Whereas the first group of majors appears to exhibit risky behavior, the latter tends to be more risk averse.

Main Results of the Study

This study concerns software copyright infringement in one major group: the college student. A number of basic findings emerge. Among these, the temptation to infringe is prevalent among college students. More precisely, this paper shows that:

  • There is a significantly higher likelihood of infringement for computer majors and male students, and a decrease in the likelihood of infringement by older students.
  • There are differences in attitudes toward risk of apprehension and conviction between majors in scientific fields and those in business and economics. Whereas the first group of majors appears to exhibit risk prone behavior, the latter tends to be more risk averse.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Infringement in IPR restricts innovators from receiving full compensation for their contributions, and acts as a disincentive to innovate. For the college student, the temptation to infringe is still prevalent, which suggests that new approaches to enforcement must be taken in order to minimise its occurrence, such as increased warnings and more IPR prosecutions in order to raise student awareness and perception of the risks of owning unlicensed intellectual property.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 148
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2002