Faklaris and Hook (2017)

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Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Faklaris and Hook (2017)
Title: Attitudes About ‘Fair Use’ and Content Sharing in Social Media Applications
Author(s): Cori Faklaris, Sara Anne Hook
Year: 2017
Citation: Faklaris, C. and Hook, S.A. (2017) Attitudes About ‘Fair Use’ and Content Sharing in Social Media Applications. CSCW 2017, February 25-March 1, 2017, Portland, OR, USA
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: The study details an online survey, with 106 respondents across 48 social networking site platforms. A Likert-type scale was used to assess respondents’ agreement with statements about the publishing and reuse their own content, and others content.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • April 2016
Funder(s):

Abstract

"The shift to Social Networking Services (SNSs) and mobile messaging apps such as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat that rely on User-Generated Content (UCG) has challenged notions of fair use under U.S. copyright law. It remains unclear what understandings are common among these app users regarding legal and ethical norms in reusing artistic, journalistic and other types of content outside of online remixer spaces. Our online survey of N=106 users of N=48 SNS platforms and apps measured attitudes regarding fair use under U.S. copyright law and attribution for work that is shared. Participants reported a high level of agreement with more-restrictive conditions for content publishing and reuse. However, analyses of ratings and responses to open-ended questions reveal tension between issues of intellectual integrity and intellectual property."

Main Results of the Study

Social networking site users opinions on reuse differ depending on whether the content in question is their own, or another users. Respondents in this study appeared to favour stricter conditions on reuse, provided these conditions related to someone else's work and not their own. Similar findings are apparent when respondents were asked about the responsibility of making clear conditions of reuse.

The authors speculate that such opinions may be as a result of a fear of increased “policing” duties in respect of their own work, or perhaps a “do as I say, not as I do” attitude.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The authors do not explicitly state any policy implications, noting that further work will be undertaken via semi-structured interviews and observations. Their main conclusion is that there appears to be a confusion between participants’ knowledge of copyright law versus intellectual integrity. Furthermore, the norms formed within the broader social networking site community may be separate than existing knowledge of fan fiction and remix culture.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets