Fetscherin (2009)

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Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Fetscherin (2009)
Title: Importance of Cultural and Risk Aspects in Music Piracy: A Cross-National Comparison Among University Students
Author(s): Fetscherin, M.
Year: 2009
Citation: Fetscherin, M. (2009). Importance of Cultural and Risk Aspects in Music Piracy: A Cross-National Comparison Among University Students. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 10(1), 42-55.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Pre-tests were conducted prior to the data collection with a small sample of respondents in order to assess the surveys reliability. 785 University students in total from USA and Switzerland, with varied demographics, social, and cultural environments with. Surveys were in German and English and given between January and March 2004, they used both web based and paper based surveys.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2004
Funder(s):
  • Not stated

Abstract

Using a conceptual model of piracy, this paper identified four categories of factors which influence consumer behavior with respect to music piracy: economic, demographic, risk, and culture. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of cultural and risk aspect in music piracy in this paper. It takes into account a large sample of micro - level behavioral data of university students from the U.S. and Switzerland. We show that despite the fact that these countries are two western, industrialized and technologically advanced nations, students have differences in national cultureand they view and treat copyright differently, which ultimately affects the propensity to engage in music piracy.Our results show that consumer behavior can differ even among developed and technologically advanced countries.We show that compared to Swiss students, American students are more likely to engage in music piracy. With respect to the demographic factors, male students are more prone to piracy, whereas older students are less likely to engage in such activity. Finally, the key risk variables perceived probability of getting caught when conducting such illegal activity and the resulting penalty to be paid are negatively associated with music piracy behavior.This paper provides important insights which can be used to have tailored policies to alleviate piracy behavior in each country.

Main Results of the Study

  • The paper identified four categories of factors: economic, demographic, risk, and culture, that are hypothesized to influence consumer behavior with respect to music piracy. With special importance paced on cultural and risk aspect in music piracy.
  • Found that conomic variables such as income and willingness to pay reduce the propensity to engage in music piracy.
  • Male and younger students were more likely to engage in music piracy, with the amount of fine to be paid if caught negatively associated with piracy behaviour.
  • Differences in piracy behaviour found even in similar western countries like Switzerland and USA.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • The first strategy is to use Digital Rights Management Systems to increases the likelihood to track and detect copyright violations of digital music and hence increase consumer‟ sperceived probability of being caught thus deter piracy.
  • Enhance criminal enforcement of copyright laws and educate the public about the application of copyright law to the Internet to deter piracy.
  • Improve business models, with content providers developing attractive offerings to consumers in the legal market that “compete” against the illegal offerings

- Different strategies of combating piracy for different countries. Author suggested differnt avenues to reduce piracy, in the USA focus on enforcement while in Switzerland focus on the moral argument of why file sharing sites should be shut down.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 785
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2004