Gan and Koh (2006)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Gan and Koh (2006)
Title: An empirical study of software piracy among tertiary institutions in Singapore
Author(s): Gan, L. L., Koh, H. C.
Year: 2006
Citation: Gan, L. L., & Koh, H. C. (2006). An empirical study of software piracy among tertiary institutions in Singapore. Information & Management, 43(5), 640-649.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Aleassa, Pearson and McClurg (2011)
About the Data
Data Description: Field survey data from questionnaires completed by 566 students or employees of three universities in Singapore, 2003-04.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Nov 2003 to May 2004
Funder(s):
  • Nanyang Technological University: Research grant RCC1/2003/SHSS-M52109001

Abstract

We used a survey technique at Singapore’s three universities to examine perceptions of software piracy and to attempt to discover its underlying factors. About 500 responses were gathered from students and staff. By means of cluster and factor analysis, we were able to identify three groups that had been influenced by attitudes towards software publishers, general acceptance, convenience, and ethics. A decision tree method linked each pirate profile to demographic and computer-related variables. It showed that, while age was negatively related to software piracy, computer experience or computer usage demonstrated an ambiguous relationship to software piracy. Moreover, older respondents who used university software mainly at their workplace tended to pirate less frequently, while students tended to be pirates more often than university employees. Also Malays were the least frequent pirates in all the Singapore ethnic groups.

Main Results of the Study

Cluster analysis defines three groups of software pirates within Singapore’s universities, each group having a very different profile: Frequent pirates, Infrequent pirates and Occasional pirates. Each group is defined by significant differences in their attitudes towards a range of factors related to software piracy: attitudes towards software publishers, acceptance of piracy, convenience, ethics and property rights protection

These demographic and computer-related variables have significant relationships with software piracy:

  1. Age is the most important demographic variable across the three groups. Younger respondents (≤ age 35) are more likely to pirate software
  2. Older respondents (> age 35) who use university software mainly at their workplace tend to pirate less frequently
  3. Medium-age (age 26 – 35) students tend to pirate software more often than medium-age university employees
  4. Among young respondents (< age 25) there is no identifiable relationship between software piracy and their extent of (a) computer experience or (b) computer usage
  5. Malays are the least frequent pirates in all the Singapore ethnic groups

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

“This study could help policy makers in developing better strategies to protect and enforce intellectual property rights in university communities.”

The “study suggests that policy makers should target students by analysing and studying the group’s behaviour and how they could change students’ inclinations to piracy and imposing heavy penalties on offenders.”

Universities could take initiatives that include:

  • Implementing a software policy for both students and staff, clearly stating the importance of compliance and the consequences for noncompliance
  • Requiring students and staff to sign up to the policy before being issued a with computer account
  • Providing an on-screen warning against software piracy when users log in or access any university software
  • Monitoring software use more effectively, working with software publishers and using internal auditors to conduct regular software inventory checks
  • Continuing to treat copyright infringement as a criminal offence, and helping, warning or prosecuting offenders.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 566
Level of aggregation: Students or employees of three universities in Singapore
Period of material under study: 2003 to 2004