Giannoumis and Beyene (2020)
|Giannoumis and Beyene (2020)|
|Title:||Cultural Inclusion and Access to Technology: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Copyright Law and Policy in Norway. in: Antona, M. and Stephanidis, C. (eds) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Practice. HCII 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12189. Springer, Cham.|
|Author(s):||Giannoumis, G.A., Beyene, W.M.|
|Citation:||Giannoumis, G.A. and Beyene, W.M. (2020) Cultural Inclusion and Access to Technology: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Copyright Law and Policy in Norway|
|Key Related Studies:|
|About the Data|
|Data Description:||Data were obtained through two sources: |
• Policy documents from national (Norweigan) and international law (state actors/top-down perspective).
• Semi-structured interviews with four Norweigan libraries and comprising six ‘decision makers’ (non-state actors).
|Data Type:||Primary and Secondary data|
|Secondary Data Sources:|
|Data Collection Methods:|
|Data Analysis Methods:|
|Cross Country Study?:||No|
|Government or policy study?:||No|
|Time Period(s) of Collection:|
“The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities obligates States Parties to ensure access to information and communications technology and recognizes the right to enjoy cultural products in accessible formats. In 2013, the World Intellectual Property Organization adopted the Marrakesh Access Treaty (MAT), which obligated State Parties ensure the accessibility of cultural products by introducing an exception to copyright law. However, despite these efforts, cultural products remain largely inaccessible for persons with disabilities due to, among other things, copyright laws that limit the production and distribution of accessible books. Research demonstrates that examining policy implementation from a “top-down” perspective provides a useful basis for examining the implementation of the MAT. However, research has yet to examine the implementation of the MAT from a “bottom-up” perspective. This article examines the “bottom-up” mechanisms for ensuring access to culture for persons with disabilities and asks, “How can the implementation of copyright law and policy promote access to culture for persons with disabilities?” The results from a case study in Norway suggest that implementing copyright law involves interdependent networks of policy actors that have adopted a social regulatory approach to promoting the rights of persons with disabilities and publishers.”
Main Results of the Study
Approaches to accessibility of cultural products may vary depending on whether the work is produced or purchased by a library. Works produced by a library may be obligated to be made freely available through a creative commons licence, whereas work that is purchased is likely to be limited by the terms of the contract. The restrictions set out in these contracts may limit accessibility by prohibiting digitisation, distribution, or conversion into different formats (e.g. screen readers). As such, from the perspective of policy implementation, contractual agreements play a significant role in regards access to cultural products and the rights of persons with disabilities. Thus, whilst copyright itself may provide for exceptions to creating accessible formats, contractual limitations may be more significant in practice.
Policy Implications as Stated By Author
The study does not make any explicit policy recommendations.
Coverage of Study
|Level of aggregation:||Librarians|
|Period of material under study:|