Giannoumis and Beyene (2020)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Giannoumis and Beyene (2020)
Title: Cultural Inclusion and Access to Technology: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Copyright Law and Policy in Norway. in: Antona, M. and Stephanidis, C. (eds) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Practice. HCII 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12189. Springer, Cham.
Author(s): Giannoumis, G.A., Beyene, W.M.
Year: 2020
Citation: Giannoumis, G.A. and Beyene, W.M. (2020) Cultural Inclusion and Access to Technology: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Copyright Law and Policy in Norway
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: Data were obtained through two sources:
• Policy documents from national (Norweigan) and international law (state actors/top-down perspective).
• Semi-structured interviews with four Norweigan libraries and comprising six ‘decision makers’ (non-state actors).
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
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Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
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Abstract

“The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities obligates States Parties to ensure access to information and communications technology and recognizes the right to enjoy cultural products in accessible formats. In 2013, the World Intellectual Property Organization adopted the Marrakesh Access Treaty (MAT), which obligated State Parties ensure the accessibility of cultural products by introducing an exception to copyright law. However, despite these efforts, cultural products remain largely inaccessible for persons with disabilities due to, among other things, copyright laws that limit the production and distribution of accessible books. Research demonstrates that examining policy implementation from a “top-down” perspective provides a useful basis for examining the implementation of the MAT. However, research has yet to examine the implementation of the MAT from a “bottom-up” perspective. This article examines the “bottom-up” mechanisms for ensuring access to culture for persons with disabilities and asks, “How can the implementation of copyright law and policy promote access to culture for persons with disabilities?” The results from a case study in Norway suggest that implementing copyright law involves interdependent networks of policy actors that have adopted a social regulatory approach to promoting the rights of persons with disabilities and publishers.”

Main Results of the Study

Approaches to accessibility of cultural products may vary depending on whether the work is produced or purchased by a library. Works produced by a library may be obligated to be made freely available through a creative commons licence, whereas work that is purchased is likely to be limited by the terms of the contract. The restrictions set out in these contracts may limit accessibility by prohibiting digitisation, distribution, or conversion into different formats (e.g. screen readers). As such, from the perspective of policy implementation, contractual agreements play a significant role in regards access to cultural products and the rights of persons with disabilities. Thus, whilst copyright itself may provide for exceptions to creating accessible formats, contractual limitations may be more significant in practice.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The study does not make any explicit policy recommendations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Green-tick.png
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 6
Level of aggregation: Librarians
Period of material under study: