Heimstädt, Saunderson and Heath (2014)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Heimstädt, Saunderson and Heath (2014)
Title: Conceptualizing Open Data Ecosystems: A timeline of Open Data development in the UK
Author(s): Heimstädt, M., Saunderson, F., Heath, T.
Year: 2014
Citation: Heimstädt, M., Saunderson, F. and Heath, T. (2014) Conceptualizing Open Data ecosystems: A timeline analysis of Open Data developmentin the UK, Diskussionsbeiträge, No. 2014/12, Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Berlin
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The study uses a combination of interviews with discourse analysis, undertaken during the summer of 2013, in order to capture the current state of the art for open data ecosystems in the UK.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Summer 2013
Funder(s):
  • European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 611988
  • OpenDataMonitor Project

Abstract

“In this paper, we conceptualize Open Data ecosystems by analysing the major stakeholders in the UK. The conceptualization is based on a review of popular Open Data definitions and business ecosystem theories, which we applied to empirical data using a timeline analysis. Our work is informed by a combination of discourse analysis and in-depth interviews, undertaken during the summer of 2013. Drawing on the UK as a best practice example, we identify a set of structural business ecosystem properties: circular flow of resources, sustainability, demand that encourages supply, and dependence developing between suppliers, intermediaries, and users. However, significant gaps and shortcomings are found to remain. Most prominently, demand is not yet fully encouraging supply and actors have yet to experience fully mutual interdependence.”

Main Results of the Study

The study creates a timeline of open government data in the UK:

• 1998 - 2009 ‘Incubation phase’ - the study indicates that the beginning of the open data ecosystem in the UK correlates with the publishing of the Cabinet Office green paper on ‘Crown Copyright in the Information Age’.
• 2009 onwards ‘Rapid growth phase’ - 2009 represents a ‘major turning point’ in the development of open government data both in the UK and US. Several meaningful policies, including the release of the Open Data Portal and Open Government License occurred after this period.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Whilst the study does not make any explicit policy recommendations, it does suggest that Open Data initiatives should be assessed by four ecosystem criteria, being: (1) cyclical, (2) sustainable, (3) demand-driven environments where argents are (4) mutually interdependent in the delivery of value.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

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