Higgins, Fell and Wilson (2007)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Higgins, Fell and Wilson (2007)
Title: Low self-control and social learning in understanding students' intentions to pirate movies in the United States
Author(s): Higgins, G. E., Fell, B.D., Wilson, A.L.
Year: 2007
Citation: Higgins, G. E., Fell, B. D., & Wilson, A. L. (2007). Low self-control and social learning in understanding students' intentions to pirate movies in the United States. Social Science Computer Review, 25(3), 339-357.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Hinduja and Higgins (2011)
About the Data
Data Description: Field survey data from questionnaires completed by 338 students across four classes of the College of Arts of an Eastern U.S college in the academic semester of Autumn 2004. Participants were asked to evaluate different scenarios affecting digital movie piracy behaviour comprised:
  • Intention to pirate digital movies
  • Assessment of low self control
  • Association with movie pirating peers
  • Attitudes toward software piracy in general
  • Moral beliefs
  • Demographics/control measures (e.g age, race and family income)
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2004
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

This study determined whether social learning theory conditioned the link between low self-control and movie piracy. Using cross-sectional data from college students (n = 338), the findings revealed that the link between low self-control and movie piracy is exacerbated by substantial association with movie-pirating peers and positive attitudes toward software piracy. Policy implications are also presented.

Main Results of the Study

The study provides an increased understanding of the movie piracy behaviours of college students and examines the factors that may influence same. The results show that low self control, an association with deviant peers, previous patterns of movie piracy behaviour and attitudes toward software piracy will have significant additive effects with the intention to commit movie piracy. The study adds to established understanding of factors relevant to the likelihood of an individual to engage in movie piracy as follows

  • The self control of an individual is an important individual-level factor that influences the intention to pirate movies. An individual with low self control has a greater propensity to commit movie piracy
  • Both an individual's association with movie pirating peers and their own positive software pirating attitudes influence their intention to pirate movies
  • Moral beliefs did not have a link with the likelihood of an individual to engage in movie piracy, which is inconsistent with previous research
  • When substantial association with movie pirating peers and positive attitudes toward software piracy combine, low self control has its strongest impact on movie piracy likelihood
  • An individuals's prior movie piracy has its strongest relative impact on movie piracy likelihood when substantial association with movie-pirating peers and positive software piracy attitudes combine

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

This study contributes to the self-control theory, social learning theory and movie piracy literatures and will enable the development of educational policy so as to reduce instances of digital movie piracy. Policy should be shaped to emphasise that movie piracy is a crime and student group processes should be influenced by educational messages that emphasise the risks of engaging in movie piracy. The foregoing will educate students that their behaviour is wrong and avoid possible transference of movie piracy behaviour to other criminal behaviours. It may also restore student inhibitions to carrying out movie piracy that have previously been removed.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 338
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2004