Higgins, Marcum, Freiburger and Ricketts (2012)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Higgins, Marcum, Freiburger and Ricketts (2012)
Title: Examining the Role of Peer Influence and Self-Control on Downloading Behavior
Author(s): Higgins, G. E., Marcum, C. D., Freiburger, T. L., Ricketts, M. L.
Year: 2012
Citation: Higgins, G. E., Marcum, C. D., Freiburger, T. L. and Ricketts, M. L. 2012. Examining the Role of Peer Influence and Self-Control on Downloading Behavior. Deviant Behavior, 33, 412-423.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Collected during the spring 2010 semester via online survey at large US universities. A total of 287 students responded to the on-line survey, which equated to a 19.6% response rate. The majority of respondents were seniors (40.1%), closely followed by a large junior response rate (30.7%). The sample contained 50.5% males (n = 142). The average age of the students was 22.5. The sample is 80.5% white (n = 227), 10.6% African American (n = 30), and 9.9% other (n = 23).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Spring semester 2010
Funder(s):

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is two-fold. First, the present study is designed to provide additional information about the link between off-line and virtual peers and music piracy. Second, the present study provides information about how off-line and virtual peers interact with self-control to understand music piracy. The results of this study show that low self-control has a link with digital piracy. This means that individuals who cannot resist temptation and do not see the consequences of their action have an increased likelihood to perform digital piracy, which is consistent with a growing literature in this area (Higgins et al. 2006; Higgins and Makin 2004a, 2004b; Higgins and Wilson 2006).

Main Results of the Study

Results

  • The results of this study show that low self-control has a link with digital piracy.
  • The result that peer association has a link with digital piracy, so associating with off-line peers who download music illegally resulted in an increased likelihood in one engaging in the same behavior.
  • Results suggest that the premise that self-control is the only reason why criminal behavior occurs is not completely correct.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Seem to suggest that policies to increase self-control (if any exist) would be useful in decreasing online piracy.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 287
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2010