Higgins and Makin (2004)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Higgins and Makin (2004)
Title: Self-Control, Deviant Peers, and Software Piracy
Author(s): Higgins, G. E., Makin, D. A.
Year: 2004
Citation: Higgins, G. E. and Makin, D. A. 2004. Self-Control, Deviant Peers, and Software Piracy Psychological Reports, 95, 921-931.
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Gunter (2009), Higgins, Fell and Wilson (2006), Malin and Fowers (2009)
About the Data
Data Description: The sample was 62% (n = 196) women and 38% (n = 122) men for a total of 318 (302 after deleting missing values). The students were between the ages of 18 and 3 1 yr. (M = 23.4, SD = 5.5)
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2004 Fall
Funder(s):

Abstract

Tests of self-control theory have examined a substantial number of criminal behaviors, but no study has examined the correlation of low self-control with software piracy. Using data collected from 302 students in this university, this study examined the correlation of low self-control with software piracy and the moderating role of associating with deviant peers in this correlation. Low self-control correlated with software piracy more strongly for those who had high associations with deviant peers than for students with low associations with deviant peers. Analysis indicated differential links for lack of moral attitude in relation to software piracy and favorable attitudes for software piracy for varying association with deviant peers.

Main Results of the Study

Tests 2 hypothesis:

  • Does low self-control correlate with software piracy.
  • Is the correlation of low self-control with software piracy exacerbated by associating with many deviant peers.

Results:

  • Analysis showed that low self-control correlates with software piracy.
  • The findings from this study show that, of the measures, none have differential effects on software piracy depending on individuals' number of deviant associates.
  • Low self-control does not correlate with software piracy for students who did not have many deviant associates, but its correlation is relevant and is largest for students with high numbers of deviant associates.
  • Control measures like sex, age, and computer use-were not significant in the model
  • The data suggest that software piracy is not an issue for any specific demographic estimate.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • A policy to decrease the amount of individual pirates there would decrease overall pirating in two ways. Since there would be less pirates there would be less downloads but also less people influencing people to pirate online.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 302
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2004 Fall