Hinduja and Higgins (2011)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Hinduja and Higgins (2011)
Title: Trends and patterns among music pirates
Author(s): Hinduja, S., Higgins, G. E.
Year: 2011
Citation: Hinduja, S., & Higgins, G. E. (2011). Trends and patterns among music pirates. Deviant Behavior, 32(7), 563-588.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The subject population of the current study is sample of 2,032 undergraduate students at a large public university in the Midwest region of the United States.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2003
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

The current work, based on data from a cross-sectional sample of approximately 2,000 randomly selected university students, seeks to clarify exactly who is most likely to engage in online music piracy. The extant knowledgebase on why individuals take part in this form of intellectual property is growing, but little is known about the type and background of those involved. This study therefore seeks to construct a profile of the typical music pirate by measuring the salience of demographic characteristics and the respondent’s scope of overall participation in cyberspace-based activities. Findings indicated that respondents’ differentially participated in music piracy based on their gender, race, type of college major, proficiency in using the Internet, and variety of online participation. Policy solutions based on an attempt to clearly specify, reinforce, and enforce definitions of appropriate Internet use are consequently suggested to reduce the prevalence of piracy among a university population.

Main Results of the Study

This article aims at clarifying some trends and patterns of those who pirate music using the Internet by examining how deeply students were immersed in music pirating behavior, and obtain an idea of their general sentiments toward the act. It shows that:

  • MP3 file downloading often involves the calculated acquisition of the contents of entire CDs, presumably for the purposes of using those as a substitute for purchasing the album from a store.
  • Perceptions of what is illegal, unethical, or immoral do not necessarily constrain certain behaviors.
  • Mean piracy levels were significantly higher for those with high-speed access to the Internet at their residence.
  • Individuals with a higher skill level when it comes to using online resources, and those who take greater advantage of all that the Internet has to offer, pirate music to a larger extent than their counterparts.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

- Engendering a respect for intellectual creations and property among students is an essential function of higher learning, particularly when it involves a networked environment where duplication and dissemination of works without the author or owner’s permission can proliferate easily and with great celerity.

- University administrators can order campaign educational materials and can institute programming to encourage ethical and lawful conduct on the Internet, and it is likely that such a partnership will curb the rate of copyright violations among college student populations nationwide.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 2032
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2003