|Title:||The Impact of National Culture on Software Piracy|
|Author(s):||Husted, W. B.|
|Citation:||Husted, B. W. (2000). The impact of national culture on software piracy. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(3), 197-211.|
|Key Related Studies:|
|Linked by:||Andrés (2006b), Bezmen and Depken (2006), Chen, Shang and Lin (2008), Higgins and Makin (2004), Lu (2009), Won and Jang (2012)|
|About the Data|
|Data Description:||Data was obtained entirely from archival sources. Data regarding the rates of software piracy was provided by the Business Software Alliance (BSA).Economic development was measured using
World Bank (1996) data on gross national product per capita. The cultural variables of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance were measured according to data published by Hofstede (1997) for fifty countries.
|Data Type:||Secondary data|
|Secondary Data Sources:|
|Data Collection Methods:|
|Data Analysis Methods:|
|Cross Country Study?:||Yes|
|Government or policy study?:|
|Time Period(s) of Collection:|
This paper examines the impact of the level of economic development, income inequality, and five cultural variables on the rate of software piracy at the country level. The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism. Implications for anti-piracy programs and suggestions for future research are developed.
Main Results of the Study
The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism.
Policy Implications as Stated By Author
Given these limitations, the correlation of individualism to software piracy has clear implications for possible solutions. Collectivist nations place a greater emphasis on social harmony than confrontation, on shame than guilt, and on face than truth. The relationship of individualism to software piracy suggests that anti-piracy campaigns need to demonstrate that piracy is a shameful practice that brings a loss of face upon the family, school or business firm. A focus on the criminal nature of piracy would probably have less impact. Economic solutions should provide incentives so that the whole group, rather than the individual, is willing to comply with legal norms. In addition, the software industry needs to understand that collectivist countries, such as India, place less emphasis on individual rights as opposed to overall social well being. For the software business to convince governments of collectivist countries, it must demonstrate that strict regulation of software piracy would lead to greater overall well being for society.