Husted (2000)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Husted (2000)
Title: The Impact of National Culture on Software Piracy
Author(s): Husted, W. B.
Year: 2000
Citation: Husted, B. W. (2000). The impact of national culture on software piracy. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(3), 197-211.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Andrés (2006b), Bezmen and Depken (2006), Chen, Shang and Lin (2008), Higgins and Makin (2004), Lu (2009), Won and Jang (2012)
About the Data
Data Description: Data was obtained entirely from archival sources. Data regarding the rates of software piracy was provided by the Business Software Alliance (BSA).Economic development was measured using

World Bank (1996) data on gross national product per capita. The cultural variables of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance were measured according to data published by Hofstede (1997) for fifty countries.

Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
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Abstract

This paper examines the impact of the level of economic development, income inequality, and five cultural variables on the rate of software piracy at the country level. The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism. Implications for anti-piracy programs and suggestions for future research are developed.

Main Results of the Study

The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Given these limitations, the correlation of individualism to software piracy has clear implications for possible solutions. Collectivist nations place a greater emphasis on social harmony than confrontation, on shame than guilt, and on face than truth. The relationship of individualism to software piracy suggests that anti-piracy campaigns need to demonstrate that piracy is a shameful practice that brings a loss of face upon the family, school or business firm. A focus on the criminal nature of piracy would probably have less impact. Economic solutions should provide incentives so that the whole group, rather than the individual, is willing to comply with legal norms. In addition, the software industry needs to understand that collectivist countries, such as India, place less emphasis on individual rights as opposed to overall social well being. For the software business to convince governments of collectivist countries, it must demonstrate that strict regulation of software piracy would lead to greater overall well being for society.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets