Huygen, Helberger, Poort, Rutten and Van Eijk (2009)
|Huygen, Helberger, Poort, Rutten and Van Eijk (2009)|
|Title:||Ups and downs; economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, film and games|
|Author(s):||Huygen, A., Helberger, N., Poort, J., Rutten, P., Van Eijk, N.|
|Citation:||Huygen, A., Helberger, N., Poort, J., Rutten, P., & Van Eijk, N. 2009. Ups and downs; economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, film and games. TNO Information and Communication Technology Series. IViR.|
|Link(s):||Definitive , Open Access|
|Key Related Studies:|
|Linked by:||Van Eijk, Poort and Rutten (2010)|
|About the Data|
|Data Description:||The empirical reality of file sharing is described using data collected during interviews with heavy file sharers as well as data from a representative survey of 1,500 internet users in the Netherlands, who were asked about their behaviour, motives and knowledge in relation to file sharing of music,
films and games.
|Data Type:||Primary data|
|Secondary Data Sources:|
|Data Collection Methods:|
|Data Analysis Methods:|
|Cross Country Study?:||No|
|Government or policy study?:||Yes|
|Time Period(s) of Collection:||
The main aim of this study is to identify the short- and long-term economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games. File sharing is the catch-all term for uploading and downloading. The short-term implications examined include the direct costs and benefits to society at large. In order to determine the long-term impact, we analyse changes in the industry’s business models as well as in cultural diversity and the accessibility of content. The study draws on existing sources of information to describe the structure and operation of the film, games and music industries and discusses the most important changes in their business models. Digitisation has played a central role in this process.
Main Results of the Study
- The number of music downloaders in the Netherlands is estimated at 4.3 million, film sharers at 1.4 million and game sharers at 1 million; 4.7 million in total. This number is relatively high, possibly due to the early introduction of broadband in the country. Music is the most frequently downloaded product.
- Whereas unlicensed downloading is widespread, the percentage of people who buy music, films and games in the Netherlands (84%) still far exceeds the percentage of file sharers (35 %), with file sharing and buying being not mutually exclusive.
- The respondents in the survey felt that free downloading had a favourable effect on the accessibility and diversity of music, films and games, file sharers themselves being particularly positive on this count.
- Both file sharers and non-file sharers believed that musicians, actors, game designers, record companies and film and game producers are negatively affected by file sharing. The effect on the quality of content was rated as neutral.
Policy Implications as Stated By Author
It is up to government, as part of its cultural policy and its policy to strengthen the country’s innovative power and competitive edge, to consider identifying the promotion of innovation in the music, film, and game industry. The provision of information and education is still vital, if only because research has shown that there is still much uncertainty among both users and suppliers about what is – and is not – permitted. A better awareness of what is and is not lawful is also important in relation to the acceptance of new business models. There is a role to play here for government – and for the industry itself.
Coverage of Study
|Level of aggregation:||Individual|
|Period of material under study:||2008|