Huygen, Helberger, Poort, Rutten and Van Eijk (2009)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Huygen, Helberger, Poort, Rutten and Van Eijk (2009)
Title: Ups and downs; economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, film and games
Author(s): Huygen, A., Helberger, N., Poort, J., Rutten, P., Van Eijk, N.
Year: 2009
Citation: Huygen, A., Helberger, N., Poort, J., Rutten, P., & Van Eijk, N. 2009. Ups and downs; economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, film and games. TNO Information and Communication Technology Series. IViR.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Van Eijk, Poort and Rutten (2010)
About the Data
Data Description: The empirical reality of file sharing is described using data collected during interviews with heavy file sharers as well as data from a representative survey of 1,500 internet users in the Netherlands, who were asked about their behaviour, motives and knowledge in relation to file sharing of music,

films and games.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2008
Funder(s):
  • Dutch Ministries of Education, Culture and Science, Economic Affairs and Justice.

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to identify the short- and long-term economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games. File sharing is the catch-all term for uploading and downloading. The short-term implications examined include the direct costs and benefits to society at large. In order to determine the long-term impact, we analyse changes in the industry’s business models as well as in cultural diversity and the accessibility of content. The study draws on existing sources of information to describe the structure and operation of the film, games and music industries and discusses the most important changes in their business models. Digitisation has played a central role in this process.

Main Results of the Study

- The number of music downloaders in the Netherlands is estimated at 4.3 million, film sharers at 1.4 million and game sharers at 1 million; 4.7 million in total. This number is relatively high, possibly due to the early introduction of broadband in the country. Music is the most frequently downloaded product.

- Whereas unlicensed downloading is widespread, the percentage of people who buy music, films and games in the Netherlands (84%) still far exceeds the percentage of file sharers (35 %), with file sharing and buying being not mutually exclusive.

- The respondents in the survey felt that free downloading had a favourable effect on the accessibility and diversity of music, films and games, file sharers themselves being particularly positive on this count.

- Both file sharers and non-file sharers believed that musicians, actors, game designers, record companies and film and game producers are negatively affected by file sharing. The effect on the quality of content was rated as neutral.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

It is up to government, as part of its cultural policy and its policy to strengthen the country’s innovative power and competitive edge, to consider identifying the promotion of innovation in the music, film, and game industry. The provision of information and education is still vital, if only because research has shown that there is still much uncertainty among both users and suppliers about what is – and is not – permitted. A better awareness of what is and is not lawful is also important in relation to the acceptance of new business models. There is a role to play here for government – and for the industry itself.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 1500
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2008