Jacobs, Heuvelman, Tan and Peters (2012)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Jacobs, Heuvelman, Tan and Peters (2012)
Title: Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory
Author(s): Jacobs, R. S., Heuvelman, A., Tan, M., Peters, O.
Year: 2012
Citation: Jacobs, R. S., Heuvelman, A., Tan, M. & Peters, O. (2012). Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 958-967.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The questionnaire created by the authors was started a total of 436 times. However, 14 percent (62 entries) proved to be incomplete or bogus entries. The resulting dataset of 374 was then divided into those respondents that download movies, and those that do not.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

The current article attempts to refine and specify a model based on other researchers' applications of the Social Cognitive Theory originally posited by Bandura to allow the behaviour and attitudes downloaders exhibit to be analysed and compared to the amount of movies they consume (measured as an monthly average estimate). The new model is then tested against data obtained from college students as well as from a technological lifestyle forum. After the revisions these analyses suggested were applied, the model explained nearly 23% of the variance in the number of movies downloaded. The most important factors in this model were, among others: the drives to see many different and new movies, the social environment and its perceived attitude toward the behaviour, and the degree to which downloading has embedded itself in the daily routine. Because the Dutch government and lobbyists are superficially unclear about the current legislature, the unique opportunity existed to study the impact of knowing about legislature on the behaviour. Other results indicate an unexpected openness to an alternative film-distribution method where both the producers and the consumers get an honest deal, presenting options to release the current political and social tension without prosecuting an increasing portion of the population.

Main Results of the Study

- While downloading as a whole is an established activity, its particulars (like the knowledge state and economic interest) are still in constant shift, leading to both a habituation to downloading and an awareness of the expectations.

- The current generation does not harbour a great amount of moral qualms about downloading movies. Added to this are the data which show that variance in the items from moral justification do not correlate significantly with changes in the number of downloads.

- Knowledge of laws is a valued component of expected outcomes, but any direct effect on them is questionable.

- Self-efficacy doesn't play a major role in predicting downloading behaviour. A possible reason for this is that downloading movies might not require a great amount of skill; navigating the web and exploring its possibilities is getting progressively less complex.

- As self-efficacy and moral justification influences fade, for an increasing amount of consumers downloading becomes second nature, and an activity that for many seems like a criminal pursuit does not occupy much conscious thought in the minds of downloaders.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

As indicated in this study, the number of movies one downloads is heavily influenced by how deeply embedded the behaviour is in the daily routine. In all probability, efforts to reduce downloading movies without paying distributors need to start there. Another method of reducing the tension surrounding downloading movies is to take an in-depth look at what the problem is. While it is outside of the scope of this article to imply there is not an issue, other investigations into profit reductions of media sales have not always correlated these faltering sales with the rise in downloading activity (Oberholzer & Strumpf, 2004). Similarly, the findings in the current study suggest that simply demonizing the downloading community might not be an effective strategy for stakeholders and governments.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 374
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated