Ki, Chang and Khang (2006)

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Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Ki, Chang and Khang (2006)
Title: Exploring Influential Factors on Music Piracy Across Countries
Author(s): Ki, E.-J., Chang, B.-H., Khang, H.
Year: 2006
Citation: Ki, E. J., Chang, B. H., & Khang, H. (2006). Exploring influential factors on music piracy across countries. Journal of Communication, 56(2), 406-426.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The data pertaining to music piracy rates across countries used in this study were provided by the IFPI. A total of 58 countries were included for final analysis. For each of the countries, 4-year (1999–2002) data were collected.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

This study explored various determinant variables influencing music piracy rates across countries. Seven variables, including income level, income inequality, individualism– collectivism, level of education, intellectual property protection, music CD price, and music market size, were adopted for this study. This study found that income level, income inequality, and market size directly impact music piracy, whereas income level, level of education, music CD price, and market size influenced music piracy through intellectual property protection.

Main Results of the Study

- The results show that GDP per capita, income inequality, intellectual property protection, and music market size play a significant role in predicting music piracy rates across countries.

- Music market size is significantly associated with music piracy rates, suggesting that countries with bigger music markets have lower music piracy rates than those with smaller markets.This study supports previous findings from software piracy studies that found that countries with larger domestic software industries had a lower incidence of piracy (Gopal& Sanders,1998).

- Countries with higher education levels are relatively less strict on intellectual property protection. This may imply that people with higher education may have greater moral and ethical standards against music piracy.

- In the current study, unlike earlier research that suggested that individualism–collectivism was an influential factor onmusic piracy rates, such effect on music piracy was not supported.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

In considering the impact of music market size on music piracy, the music industry should use a more proactive marketing strategy. Music companies can promote the advantages of buying an original music CD by investing more money in the music market. This may be employed as an initial strategy to encourage the market to maturate in a country where levels of music piracy are relatively high. To reduce illegal copying, buying, and selling of music Cds in the long term, an expansion of the music market can be more effective than lawsuits against consumers or developing technology to prevent unauthorized duplication.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 58
Level of aggregation: Country
Period of material under study: 1999-2002