Kwan (2007)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Kwan (2007)
Title: End-user digital piracy: Contingency framework, affective determinants and response distortion
Author(s): Kwan, S. S. K.
Year: 2007
Citation: Kwan, S. S. K. (2007). End-user digital piracy: Contingency framework, affective determinants and response distortion.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The data were collected through surveys. Participants were recruited from the members of a major e-government portal in Hong Kong as in the first research. A lucky draw was offered to those who finished the experiment as a token of gratitude. Participants were unaware of the topic of study at the time of recruitment. They were randomly assigned to one of four different study cells.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):

Abstract

With rapid advances in networking and multimedia technologies, end-user digital piracy has caused more substantial impacts to firms producing digital contents as well as the society at large. In response to the phenomenon, three related research have been conducted. The first research proposes a contingency model to understand the decision making process of end-user digital piracy behavior. The model encompasses two distinct piracy behaviors, namely unauthorized copying and unauthorized sharing, and two distinct digital contents: namely software as well as movie and music. Empirical support of the proposed model is obtained by a large-scale online survey. While the first research mainly adopts a cognitive perspective, the second research considers affective factors involved in unauthorized sharing that is seldom studied in previous literature. The third research focuses on response distortion that has been troubling many empirical studies on digital piracy. I propose an innovative method for structural equation modeling using data obtained by Randomized Response Technique (RRT) that is often mistaken as only suitable for univariate analysis. The usefulness and feasibility of this new method are supported by large-scale empirical studies on software piracy.

Main Results of the Study

  • Moral obligation is not a significant direct determinant of behavioral intention. This is simply because moral obligation is considered in parallel with attitude which is a strong direct determinant of behavioral intention. We actually found that moral obligation is an important indirect determinant of behavioral intention mediated by attitude, especially for unauthorized sharing behaviors.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Researchers in piracy may benefit from new findings from the emerging trend in moral psychology that emphasizes affective rather than cognitive factors. Methods of brain imaging based on advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have also been deployed to empirically test new theories and to understand the underlying process at a microscopic biological level. Such development has led to exciting results and may provide new insights and strong evidence of the emotional reactions involved in end-user digital piracy.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 176
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 203
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 183
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 157
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated