Liao, Lin and Liu (2010)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Liao, Lin and Liu (2010)
Title: Predicting the use of pirated software: A contingency model integrating perceived risk with the Theory of Planned Behavior
Author(s): Liao, C., Lin, H.-N., Liu, Y.-P.
Year: 2010
Citation: Liao, C., Lin, H. N., & Liu, Y. P. (2010). Predicting the use of pirated software: A contingency model integrating perceived risk with the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 237-252.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: A Web-based survey was conducted via an electronic questionnaire to verify the theoretical model. An invitation to participate was posted on popular forums and message boards in Taiwan. The objectives of the research were explained, and a hyperlink was set up directing interested individuals to the Web-based survey. As an incentive to participate, respondents were offered a chance at winning up to an NT$ 500 (approximately US$ 15) cash prize. Over a period of 2 months, a total of 305 valid questionnaires were collected.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2 Months
Funder(s):

Abstract

As software piracy continues to be a threat to the growth of national and global economies, understanding why people continue to use pirated software and learning how to discourage the use of pirated software are urgent and important issues. In addition to applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective to capture behavioral intention to use pirated software, this paper considers perceived risk as a salient belief influencing attitude and intention toward using pirated software. Four perceived risk components related to the use of pirated software (performance, social, prosecution and psychological risks) have been identified, measured and tested. Data were collected through an online survey of 305 participants. The results indicate that perceived prosecution risk has an impact on intention to use pirated software, and perceived psychological risk is a strong predictor of attitude toward using pirated software. In addition, attitude and perceived behavior control contribute significantly to the intended use of pirated software. However, the proposed direct relationship between subjective norm and intention to use pirated software is not supported. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Main Results of the Study

  • Attitude and perceived behavioral control are significant antecedents of intention, but subjective norm is not a significant predictor of intention.
  • Therefore, an individual’s intention to use pirated software does not seem to be positively affected by the approval of significant others.
  • Perceived social risk is not a significant predictor of attitude and of intention toward using pirated software. This result is contradictory to Tan’s work (2002) in which social risk has a significant influence on intention to purchase pirated software.
  • Perceived psychological risk has a significant influence on attitude toward usage, but has no significant impact on behavioral intention to use pirated software.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Despite the fact that pirated software on personal computers (PC) declined in many countries in 2007, the Business Software Alliance (BSA) (2008) claimed that piracy in emerging, fast-growing PC markets caused overall numbers to worsen and dollar losses from piracy to rise to $48 billion. BSA emphasized that ‘‘software piracy negatively affects much more than just the industry. It also puts a strain on technology companies’ ability to invest in new jobs and new technologies; harms local retailers and services firms; lowers government tax revenues; and increases the risk of cyber crime and security problems.’’ Software piracy, therefore, continues to be a major challenge for economies throughout the world. Understanding why people engage in piracy behaviors is an increasingly important issue for management and practice. Accordingly, this study aims to develop and empirically test a model examining the antecedents of attitude and behavioral intention that cause individuals to engage in the use of pirated software.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
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Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 305
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2 Months