Morris and Higgins (2010)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Morris and Higgins (2010)
Title: Criminological theory in the digital age: The case of social learning theory and digital piracy
Author(s): Morris, R. G., Higgins, G. E.
Year: 2010
Citation: Morris, R. G., & Higgins, G. E. (2010). Criminological theory in the digital age: The case of social learning theory and digital piracy. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 470-480.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Lee, Fenoff and Paek (2019)
About the Data
Data Description: The data for the present study were collected during the Fall 2006 semester, from two universities in the United States. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in liberal arts courses, as they represented the cross-section of the entire population of both universities. This resulted in a convenience sample of 585 students.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2006
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

To date, few studies had attempted to extend existing theories of crime to technology driven crimes, such as digital piracy. To address this gap in the literature, this study explored the ability of Akers’ social learning theory in explaining the likelihood of engaging in digital piracy. Also explored was the extent to which the social learning process mediated the impact of several noteworthy correlates of digital piracy among college students attending different universities (n=585), relying on a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings were modestly supportive of social learning theory as it may apply to digital piracy. The findings are discussed in the context of extending existing theories of crime to account for contemporary technology driven crimes, such as digital piracy. Policy implications and direction for future research are discussed.

Main Results of the Study

- The results suggest that social learning theory may account for a substantial amount of variation in the likelihood to engage in digital piracy. That is, individuals are likely to follow the social learning process that will lead them to digital piracy. The results also indicate that consistent correlates of digital piracy (e.g., gender and age) are mediated by social learning theory. By exploring crimes similar to digital piracy, scholars can shed light on existing theories, such as, but not limited to social learning theory.

- Scholars, and the society that they serve, have much to gain by giving attention to digital crimes. Through studying digital piracy, one can gain a better understanding of crime that takes place from behind a computer terminal. This allows for theories to be critiqued, reevaluated and modified.

- Studying digital piracy is unique by the fact that it can be used as a strategic site for unveiling criminological concepts like social learning theory as they may apply to digital crimes. Accounting for differences in how a particular theory can explain terrestrial crimes versus digital crimes may have major implications for future theory and policy development.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

From a policy implications standpoint, these results lead us to suggest that education is necessary in all regions about digital piracy. For instance, curricula that help users to understand that digital piracy is an illegal activity is important for the reduction of this behavior. Educational efforts need to take place offline as well as on-line and should be delivered technology users starting at a very early age. Initiatives geared toward educating youngsters about the benefits, dangers, and morals of participating in the on-line world could be easily developed and implemented at the primary-school level. These recommendations are consistent with N.L. Piquero's (2005) suggestion that education is an effective strategy to reduce instances of digital piracy (i.e., intellectual property theft).



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 585
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2006