Nandi and Rochelandet (2008)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Nandi and Rochelandet (2008)
Title: The incentives for contributing digital contents over p2p networks: An empirical investigation
Author(s): Nandi, T. K., Rochelandet, F.
Year: 2008
Citation: Nandi, T. K., & Rochelandet, F. (2008). The incentives for contributing digital contents over P2P networks: an empirical investigation. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 5, 19-35.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Online and pen/paper survey data gathered from 2533 individuals; sample reduced to 2068 after missing values were removed. Sample of 2068 individuals used for descriptive results and sample of 1063 individuals used for estimation results. The descriptive sample was composed of 81% males and 19% females and found that 48.6% of individuals did not participate in P2P networks, 28.82% were free-riders, and 22.58% contributed to P2P networks. The authors do not specify which industry the P2P file-sharing relates to, and they do not specify a funder for the research.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2005
Funder(s):

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the determinants of sharing behaviour by envisaging two types of behaviour, namely contribution against free riding. In doing so, we evaluate the theoretical predictions about reciprocity and altruism in the presence of non-rival goods and anonymity. We use a probit model and primary data from a survey that collects information about P2P sharing behaviour of more than 2000 individuals. Our econometric results suggest that the motivations for contributing are poorly determined by rational self-interested behaviour. We then envisage policy implications in terms of copyright enforcement and business.

Main Results of the Study

The main results reported by this study:

  • The value of P2P networks is marginally significant. However, the marginal effect is negative and very low.
  • The quest for cultural diversity makes individuals more likely to be a contributor than a free-rider in P2P networks.
  • The perception of legal and technical risks associated with sharing behaviour has no significant effect on contribution.
  • A moderate level of education is associated with a lower likelihood of being a contributor in P2P.
  • Age, income and occupation do not have a significant impact on behaviour in P2P networks.
  • Higher internet experience has significant positive impact on contribution behaviour.
  • Findings suggest that contribution behaviour is not well explained by an utilitarian approach.
  • Contribution behaviour can be motivated by social influence, and these practices are embedded in a social context.
  • Further research can explore the mechanisms by which this social influence explains the behaviour of contributors over P2P networks.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Policy implications reported in the study:

  • A major way to fight against P2P networks is to reduce their absolute utility by increasing the costs associated with contribution in order to dry up the supply of contents on P2P networks. However, the findings suggest copyright enforcement (in particular, increased sanctions, legal suits against individual copiers) has no impact on contribution behaviour. This might explain the failure of current enforcement strategies.
  • The findings cast some doubts on the efficiency of ‘réponse graduée,’ or the use of warnings and cease and desist letters: at best, this new form of copyright enforcement could eliminate the current P2P technology used to share contents. Any new sharing technology that would replace current P2P technology might be fuelled by the ‘supply’ of content contributors.
  • Another strategy is to decrease the relative utility of P2P networks by increasing the quality of services and diversity of contents available in the legal markets. Content industries should try to build innovative business models to compete efficiently with P2P content-sharing or even to extract the value from these sharing communities.
  • Copyright law could stimulate innovation by implementing compulsory licences in order to facilitate the acquisition of copyrights and increase the size of catalogue supplied to consumers in legal markets.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 2068
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2005