OHIM (2015)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

OHIM (2015)
Title: Intellectual Property And Education In Europe. Study On IP Education In School Curricula In The EU Member States With Additional International Comparisons.
Author(s): The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market and the European Patent Office
Year: 2015
Citation: OHIM (2015). Intellectual Property And Education In Europe. Study On IP Education In School Curricula In The EU Member States With Additional International Comparisons.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of school curricula in 33 EU countries/regions and non-EU countries/regions (Switzerland, Singapore, California, Massachussets, Washington, Hong Kong, was carried out.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2012-2013
Funder(s):
  • OHIM

Abstract

OHIM, through the Observatory, commissioned this mapping study on intellectual property education in school curricula in EU Member States to see how IP education is carried out and what could be done to improve it. IP education means the skills and competences that young people can be expected to acquire in the classroom that enable them to become familiar with intellectual property, understand its potential to generate income and economic growth and lead them to respect intellectual property rights, whether their own or those of others. The study suggests that the best approach to intellectual property education is to ensure that intellectual property skills and competences are, in the terms used by the study “transverse competences” or, more simply, that can be used across different subjects in a curriculum. It also gives examples of five learning areas selected from the eight key competencies chosen by the EU which define the main priorities for education in today´s modern economies and that provide opportunities to introduce IP in the curriculum.

Main Results of the Study

  • According to the responses by the ministries of education, the most fruitful areas in which to include IP education are the arts, citizenship, entrepreneurship, ICT teaching and STEM.
  • IP education is not a core curriculum subject, but an area of learning that lends itself to cross-curricular delivery as it is relevant to all subjects that use resource material and lead to the creation of outputs.
  • This study has found that many of the good practices in IP education come from private-public partnerships, in particular between commercial enterprises and relevant government ministries


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Teachers who are trained in creativity hold more positive views about IP education and have the power to unlock their students’ creative and innovative potential. Improved teacher training in the area of IP rights, with provision for innovative classroom resources, should enable a better delivery of IP education.
  • Areas of education that focus on creativity and innovation are a natural arena for discussing patents, trade marks, copyright and designs. Pupils will want to know the economic value of their creations and how to protect them.
  • Some insights from the most innovative countries outside of the EU show that not only the “positive” side of IPR needs to be transmitted to the pupils, but also that which is related to IP infringements, counterfeiting and piracy, therein building a notion of respect and providing a full picture of intellectual property complexity
  • As a follow-up stage of this report, and based on knowledge obtained from this study, the Office of Harmonization in the Internal Market will focus on creating a specialised network between the educational institutions, notably those that participated in the drafting of this report and stakeholders of the Observatory, in order to work together to develop dedicated teaching programmes for teachers and students, design and coordinate appropriate educational activities and support.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 33
Level of aggregation: School curriculum
Period of material under study: 2012-2013