Palmedo (2019)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Palmedo (2019)
Title: The Impact of Copyright Exceptions for Researchers on Scholarly Output
Author(s): Michael Palmedo
Year: 2019
Citation: Palmedo, M. (2019) The Impact of Copyright Exceptions for Researchers on Scholarly Output. EfilJournal, 2(6).
Link(s): Open Access
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About the Data
Data Description: The study uses an econometric model to examine the relationship between the quantity of publications in human health fields at country level (DV) and the presence of robust copyright exceptions permitting access to works for research (IV).

Data on the ratio of publications per country were obtained from SCImago Journal & Country Rank and Clarivate Web of Science, which was thereafter distilled into subject-areas related to human health in Scopus and the Web of Science database. Data on the strength of copyright exceptions at country level were obtained from a survey by The American University Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property.

Other relevant variables include the copyright environment overall (stronger protection/higher access costs vs lower protection/lower access costs) and national wealth (e.g. ability to afford knowledge foods).

Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
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Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
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Abstract

“High prices restrict access to academic journals and books that scholars rely upon to author new research. One possible solution is the expansion of copyright exceptions allowing unauthorized access to copyrighted works for researchers. I test the link between copyright exceptions for health and science researchers and their publishing output at the country-subject level. I find that scientists residing in countries that implement more robust research exceptions publish more papers and books in subsequent years. This relationship between copyright exceptions and publishing is stronger in lower-income countries, and stronger where there is stricter copyright protection of existing works.”

Main Results of the Study

Where a country has robust copyright exceptions which permit scholars with easier access to works (cost, prior authorisation etc.), this results in an increase in the quantity of scholarly works produced in that country. In such countries, publications increase by 17-22%, which the study hypothesises is due to scholars’ ability to access “raw material” knowledge goods.

In countries with poorer national wealth (and therefore less ability to afford access to knowledge goods), copyright exceptions have a stronger impact in boosting scholarly outputs; by contrast, wealthier countries are less effected where copyright exceptions for scholars are weak. Similarly, for countries that have stronger copyright systems overall (which are strictly enforced) the presence of robust copyright exceptions for scholars also has a greater impact on increasing scholarly output.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The study suggests that the adoption of broader copyright exceptions, which particularly permit access to works for the purpose of research, would have a positive effect on incentivising the creation of new works.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Green-tick.png
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets