PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008)
Title: Making the Intangible Tangible: The Economic Contribution of Australia's Copyright Industries
Author(s): PricewaterhouseCoopers
Year: 2008
Citation: Making the Intangible Tangible: The Economic Contribution of Australia's Copyright Industries, PricewaterhouseCoopers, http://web.archive.org/web/20101206161639/http://www.copyright.org.au/admin/cms-acc1/_images/13730910374c97f6ba497bf.pdf (2008).
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This report analyzes the economic contribution of Australia's copyright industries over 12 years, using WIPO's classification of copyright industries: core, partial, interdependent, and non-dedicated support.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2008
Funder(s):
  • Australian Copyright Council

Abstract

Australia remains a significant net importer of copyright goods and services. While exports of copyright products has grown in real terms by 0.6% per year over the period 1995/96 to 2006/07, imports have grown at 2.1%. In 2006/07 Australia had a trade deficit of just under $20.8 billion in the copyright industries. Australia’s economy has a relatively high dependence on copyright industries. In comparison with other economies that have been analysed using the same WIPO framework as used in this report, the Australian economy appears to have a greater copyright intensity than average in terms of both value added by, and employment in, the copyright industries.

Main Results of the Study

Copyright industries comprise a substantial proportion of the Australian economy. In the most recent year for which data is available (2006/07), Australia’s copyright industries:

  • employed 837,507 people, which constituted 8.0% of the Australian workforce;
  • generated economic value equal to 10.3% of gross domestic product ($97.7 billion);
  • generated $6.873 billion in exports, equal to 4.1% of total exports.

Australia’s copyright industries have grown considerably over the past 12 years. Over the period 1995/96 to 2006/07 the real (ie inflation adjusted) compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for the copyright industries averaged 4.7%, with the core copyright industries growing 5.1% per year. This compares to a CAGR for gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.6% over the same period. Productivity growth in Australia’s copyright industries has resulted in significant real wages growth. Spurred by digitisation, the value generated in Australia’s copyright industries has increased in real terms over the period 1995/96 to 2006/07 from $85,512 to $116,742 per employee. As a result, the real average wage for people employed in the copyright industries increased from $51,572 in 1995/96 to $61,355 in 2006/07.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Copyright industries should be encouraged legally and financially due to the rising and substantial contribution to the Australian economy.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 4
Level of aggregation: Australian copyright industries
Period of material under study: 1996-2007