Programming and broadcasting

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This industry category includes the following:

60. This division includes the activities of creating content or acquiring the right to distribute content and subsequently broadcasting that content, such as radio, television and data programmes of entertainment, news, talk, and the like. Also included is data broadcasting, typically integrated with radio or TV broadcasting. The broadcasting can be performed using different technologies, over-the-air, via satellite, via a cable network or via Internet. This division also includes the production of programmes that are typically narrowcast in nature (limited format, such as news, sports, education, and youth-oriented programming) on a subscription or fee basis, to a third party, for subsequent broadcasting to the public.

60.1 Radio broadcasting
60.10 Radio broadcasting
This class includes:
- activities of broadcasting audio signals through radio broadcasting studios and facilities for the transmission of aural programming to the public, to affiliates or to subscribers
This class also includes:
- activities of radio networks, i.e. assembling and transmitting aural programming to affiliates or subscribers via over-the-air broadcasts, cable or satellite
- radio broadcasting activities over the Internet (Internet radio stations)
- data broadcasting integrated with radio broadcasting.
60.2 Television programming and broadcasting activities
60.20 Television programming and broadcasting activities
This class includes the activities of creating a complete television channel programme, from purchased programme components (e.g. movies, documentaries etc.), self produced programme components (e.g. local news, live reports) or a combination thereof. This complete television programme can be either broadcast by the producing unit or produced for transmission by a third party distributor, such as cable companies or satellite television providers.
The programming may be of a general or specialised nature (e.g. limited formats such as news, sports, education or youth oriented programming). This class includes programming that is made freely available to users, as well as programming that is available only on a subscription basis. The programming of video-on-demand channels is also included here.
This class also includes data broadcasting integrated with television broadcasting.

Click Here for more details on this classification: Industry Appendix


Industry Sectors
  • Programming and broadcasting (37)

Programming and broadcasting is an industry sector defined within the Copyright Evidence wiki.


The following studies involve this industry sector (37):

 Citation
Asser Institute and IViR (2014)T.M.C. Asser Instituut/Asser International Sports Law Centre and the Institute for Information Law - University of Amsterdam (2014) Study on Sports Organisers' Rights in the European Union, EAC/18/2012
BOP Consulting and DotEcon (2015)BOP Consulting, DotEcon (2015). International Comparison of Approaches to Online Copyright Infringement: Final Report, commissioned by the Intellectual Property Office.
Baker and Cunningham (2006)Baker, M., & Cunningham, B. (2006). Court decisions and equity markets: Estimating the value of copyright protection. Journal of Law and Economics 49(2), 567-596.
Bechtold (2013)Bechtold, S., 2013. The fashion of TV show formats.
Borghi, Maggiolino, Montagnani and Nuccio (2012)Borghi, M., Maggiolino, M., Montagnani, M.L. & Nuccio, M. (2012). Determinants in the online distribution of digital content: An exploratory analysis. European Journal for Law and Technology, 3(2), 1-29.
Charles River Associates (2014)Charles River Associates, Economic Analysis of the Territoriality of the Making Available Right in the EU (2014).
Chiou and Tucker (2011)Chiou, Lesley and Tucker, Catherine, Copyright, Digitization, and Aggregation (December 13, 2011). NET Institute Working Paper No. 11-18.
Envisional (2011)Envisional (2011), Technical report: An Estimate of Infringing Use of the Internet
Farooqui, Goodridge and Haskel (2011)Farooqui, S., Goodridge, P., & Haskel, J. (2011). The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in the UK Market Sector. Intellectual Property, 2.
Frank N. Magid Associates (2009)Frank, N. Magid Associates. 2009. Introducing Hollywood’s best customers: Vuze user vs. general internet: Comparative data.
Fromer and Lemley (2013)Fromer, Jeanne C., and Mark A. Lemley. "Audience in Intellectual Property Infringement, The." Mich. L. Rev. 112 (2013): 1251.
Geradin (2005)Geradin, Damien. Access to content by new media platforms: a review of the competition law problems. European Law Review, February (2005).
GfK Belgium (2015)GfK Belgium, Provision of two online consumer surveys as support and evidence base to a Commission study: Identifying the main cross-border obstacles to the Digital Single Market and where they matter most
Goodridge, Haskel and Mitra-Kahn (2012)Goodridge, P., Haskel, J. & Mitra-Kahn, B. (2012) Updating the value of UK copyright investment, IPO, 2012
Goolsbee and Petrin (2004)Goolsbee, A., & Petrin, A. (2004). The consumer gains from direct broadcast satellites and the competition with cable TV. Econometrica, 72(2), 351-381.
Gowers (2006)Gowers, A. (2006). Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. The Stationery Office.
Hadopi (2011)HADOPI. 2011. Hadopi, cultural assets and internet use: practices and perceptions of French internet users (Online). Available: http://www.hadopi.fr/download/HADOPI_T0_version_long.pdf.
Hargreaves (2011)Hargreaves, I. (2011). Digital Opportunity. A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth,
Hazucha, Liu and Watabe (2013)Hazucha, B., Liu, H. and Watabe, T, Copyright, Technological Protection Measures and Their Acceptance by Consumers in Japan, SERCI Annual Congress Conference Paper (2013).
IHS Technology (2015)IHS Technology, Current Market and Technology Trends in the Broadcasting Sector, WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, SCCR/30/5(Jun. 2015)
Intellectual Property Office (2016b)Intellectual Property Office (2016), Government Response to the further consultation and technical review on changes to Section 72 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (which permits the free public showing or playing of a film contained in a broadcast).
Karaganis and Urban (2015)Karaganis, J., & Urban, J. (2015). The rise of the robo notice. Communications of the ACM, 58(9), 28-30.
Krishnan and Sitaraman (2012)Krishnan and Sitaraman, Video Stream Quality Impacts Viewer Behavior: Inferring Causality Using Quasi-Experimental Designs, (2012).
Larsson, Svensson, Mezei and De Kaminski (2014)Larsson, S., Svensson, M., Mezei, P., & De Kaminski, M. (2014). The Digital Intellectual Property Challenge Revisited: File-sharing and Copyright Development in Hungary.
Miceli and Adelstein (2006)Miceli, Thomas J., and Richard P. Adelstein. An economic model of fair use. Information Economics and Policy 18.4 (2006): 359-373.
Oliar, Pattison and Powell (2014)Oliar, D., Pattison, N., & Powell, K. R. (2013). Copyright Registrations: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. Tex. L. Rev., 92, 2211.
Pertierra (2012)Pertierra, A. C. (2012). If They Show Prison Break in the United States on a Wednesday, by Thursday It Is Here: Mobile Media Networks in Twenty-First-Century Cuba. Television & New Media, 13, 399-414.
PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008)Making the Intangible Tangible: The Economic Contribution of Australia's Copyright Industries, PricewaterhouseCoopers, http://web.archive.org/web/20101206161639/http://www.copyright.org.au/admin/cms-acc1/_images/13730910374c97f6ba497bf.pdf (2008).
PricewaterhouseCoopers (2016)PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia Report 'Understanding the costs and benefits of introducing a ‘fair use’ exception', 2016.
Rendas (2017)Rendas, T. (2017) Copyright, Technology and the CJEU: An Empirical Study. International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC), Forthcoming
Sag (2012)Sag, M. (2012). Predicting fair use. Ohio State Law Journal, 73, 1.
Singh and Kretschmer (2012)Singh, S., Kretschmer, M. (2012). Strategic behaviour in the international exploitation of TV formats: A case study of the idols format. Chapter 1 in edited volume – Idols: Authenticity, Identity and Performance in a Global Television Format (eds. Koos Zwaan and Joost de Bruin), Farnham: Ashgate.
Taylor (2012)Taylor, S. A. (2012). Evaluating digital piracy intentions on behaviors. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(7), 472-483.
United States Copyright Office (2011)Satellite Extension and Localism Act (STELA), Section 302 Report, United States Copyright Office (2011), available at http://copyright.gov/reports/section302-report.pdf.
Waldfogel (2009)Waldfogel, J. (2009). Lost on the web: Does web distribution stimulate or depress television viewing? Information Economics and Policy, 21(2), 158-168.
Watt (2009)Watt, Richard. An Empirical Analysis of the Economics of Copyright: How Valid are the Results of Studies in Developed Countries for Developing Countries?. The Economics of Intellectual Property (2009): 65.
Yu (2010)Yu, S. (2010). Product placement and digital piracy: How young Chinese viewers react to the unconventional method of corporate cultural globalization. Communication, Culture & Critique, 3(3), 435-463.