Rochelandet and Le Guel (2005)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Rochelandet and Le Guel (2005)
Title: P2P music sharing networks: Why the legal fight against copiers may be inefficient
Author(s): Rochelandet, F., Le Guel, F.
Year: 2005
Citation: Rochelandet, F., & Le Guel, F. (2005). P2P music sharing networks: Why the legal fight against copiers may be inefficient. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 2(2), 69-82.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Nandi and Rochelandet (2008), Sheehan, Tsao and Yang (2010)
About the Data
Data Description: Analysis based on primary data gathered in January and February 2005. 2533 individuals were surveyed using a paper survey and a Web-based survey.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2005
Funder(s):

Abstract

The paper investigates empirically the behavior of copiers over P2P networks based on an ordered Logit model of intensity using a dataset collected from more than 2,500 French households. In accordance with the prediction of the Beckerian framework, copying behavior is negatively correlated with the willingness to pay for an original when a copy is available. But individuals also make their decisions according to their social neighborhood and to the degree to which they have learned about copying. Furthermore, we find that copiers are motivated by the search for diversified contents, and they are also very concerned about the interests of artists. We then consider the efficiency of anti-copying policies on the copying of music and movies.

Main Results of the Study

  • Herding behavior can favor the expansion of sharing practices in spite of the copyright reinforcement (increased sanctions, stronger liability rules, and so on). It depends on the sensitivity of current users — particularly, ’fashion leaders’ — to such signals. This study suggests that the perception of legal risks is not significant.
  • More generally, P2P sharing is only a small part of copying behavior: it is mainly grounded on more general copying practices. Unauthorized sharing is primarily embedded in social networks: family, friends and office. In other words, file-sharing and physical exchanges of CD and MP3 files. Therefore, fighting only P2P is not only insufficient to eradicate file sharing in the long run but also somewhat iniquitous.
  • P2P users search for a certain level of access to diversity of works. In comparison with P2P supply, the current models of online delivery such as iTunes seem to suffer from a lack of cultural diversity.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Copyright stakeholders should focus on designing new business models to compete with P2P networks and other sharing technologies. From both positive and normative viewpoints, the majors have to eliminate all kinds of sharing behaviors (if one considers that they actually result in a net social loss). Record and movie producers should focus on increasing the willingness to pay for originals (e.g. by supplying new formats). Instead of reinforcing copyright, governments should care about stimulating competition by eliminating barriers to entry in those new markets as it prevails in the CD and DVD markets.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 2533
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2005