Rooij, Fine, Yanyan and Wu (2015)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Rooij, Fine, Yanyan and Wu (2015)
Title: Piracy by Approval:Social Norms, Deterrence, and Copyright Compliance in China Compared to the United States
Author(s): Rooji, B.V, Fine, A, Yanyan, Z, Wu, Y
Year: 2015
Citation: Van Rooij, B., Wu, Y., & Fine, A. D. (2014). Piracy by Approval Social Norms, Deterrence, and Copyright Compliance in China. UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper, (2015-03).
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: American participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mason and Suri 2012),

which provides an online forum to access individuals interested in completing tasks such as surveys and questionnaires for a nominal fee. To reach our consent page, the participant had to be a U.S. citizen, a current college/university student, and be between the ages of 18-25. Participants were paid $1.05 for their participation. The sample consisted of 107 American college students, ages ranging from 18 to 25 years.

The Chinese college student sample was recruited from a large university in northern China. Data were collected using the same platform and procedure as the US study. The sample consisted of 109 Chinese university students, ages ranging from 18 to 27.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):

Abstract

This study seeks to comparatively understand copyright piracy amongst Chinese and American students.It tested the influences of deterrence, social norms, and perceived duty to obey the law on the likelihood that the 216 participants would engage in digital piracy in two hypothetical digital offending scenarios. Half of the participants were subjected to an “enforcement campaign” condition that indicated the enforcement crackdown on digital piracy. The other half did not receive information about enforcement of digital copyright infringement. Results indicate that regardless of explicit campaign enforcement,Chinese students’ inclination to engage in digital piracy hinges chiefly on the perceived behavior and approval of others. This stands in contrast to the US students for whom the enforcement campaign changed influences on their behavior. Both social norms and perceived deterrence affected decisionmaking during the explicit crackdown, whereas both social norms and perceived duty to obey the law affected decision-making when there is no explicit crackdown. The study provides broader implications both for enforcement policy and for comparative compliance theory.

Main Results of the Study

  • Results indicate that US students are less likely to offend in the explicit deterrence context. Similarly, Chinese students are also less likely to offend in the enforcement campaign context
  • Chinese students’ inclination to illegally download software hinges chiefly on the perceived behavior and approval of others, regardless of whether there is a crackdown-type of enforcement. Neither deterrence nor the perceived duty to obey the law play a role in affecting Chinese digital piracy. This stands in contrast to the US where social norms affect decision-making processes in tandem either with deterrence (during the crackdown) or with a perceived duty to obey the law (when there is no crackdown).


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Such broader research on compliance problems beyond a simple enforcement and deterrence paradigm may have vital policy implications. In this particular study for instance the implications are clear, any approach to reduce piracy should be centered on decreasing the social norms that support violations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 107
Level of aggregation: American College Students
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 109
Level of aggregation: Chinese University Students
Period of material under study: Not stated