Tang and Fam (2005)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Tang and Fam (2005)
Title: The effect of interpersonal influence on softlifting intention and behaviour
Author(s): Tang, J. H., Fam, C. K.
Year: 2005
Citation: Tang, J. H., & Farn, C. K. (2005). The effect of interpersonal influence on softlifting intention and behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(2), 149-161.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: In study one: Subjects were students of an introductory database course of the Management Information Systems department at the National Central University. Respondents were comprised of 43 males and 11 females, with an average age of 20. Subjects were volunteers recruited to participate in a disguised software quality evaluation exercise, earning NT$100 in cash within 15 minutes (approximately US$4). Each subject was randomly assigned to one of four experimental situations.

In study two: a questionnaire was designed to measure interpersonal influence, softlifting intention and behavior and it was administered to undergraduate students in two public universities in Taiwan. 206 useable questionnaires were collected to form the sample. 69% were male. The average ages was 23, ranging rom 18 to 50. A majority of the students were MIS majors (75%) and CS majors (12%).

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not Stated
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of interpersonal influence on personal software piracy, also known as softlifting. A laboratory experiment with 54 subjects was conducted, in which each subject was told to participate in a software quality evaluation exercise. However, a ploy was carried out to measure the subjects’ intention in software piracy under different levels of group pressure and financial gains. The results are interesting. On the intention of softlifting, both group pressure and financial gains are significant determinants. The interaction of group pressure and financial gains is also significant: when group pressure is toward pirating software, financial gains is not a relevant factor; whereas when group pressure is toward purchasing, financial gains becomes a dominant factor in softlifting intention. A further survey (with 216 college students from two public universities in Taiwan) designed to investigate the relationship between consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (Bearden et al., 1989) and softlifting intention/behavior. A path analysis demonstrated that normative influence was related to softlifting intention, yet information influence effect was marginal. The effect of normative influence on softlifting behavior was mainly mediated by softlifting intention. Implications are also discussed.

Main Results of the Study

- In study one:

  • Group pressure has more influence on softlifting intention when financial gains from the softlifting action is low.
  • The effect of group pressure on softlifting intention is moderated by the level of financial gains: the price of software is a less dominant factor for software piracy compared with group pressure when the price is lower; the importance of price is higher when the software is more expensive. But the group pressure and price of software consistently influence people’s intention of copying respectively.

- In study two:

  • The norms that a group forms determine an individual’s softlifting intention rather than the information that a group provides. This implies that interpersonal influence is related to softlifting intention, rather than softlifting behavior directly.
  • Normative influence is more powerful than informational influence in shaping peers’ intention and behavior.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

- Cultivating a social norm with group pressure toward purchasing software should be something to think about.

- Software pricing policy is another important agenda for inhibiting software piracy. If prices are set at a level that is not perceived to be expensive, the effects of a positive social norm will be more effective.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 54
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not Stated


Sample size: 206
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not Stated