Throsby and Zednik (2010)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Throsby and Zednik (2010)
Title: Do You Really Expect To Get Paid?: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia
Author(s): Throsby, D., Zednik, A.
Year: 2010
Citation: Throsby, David, and Anita Zednik. Do you really expect to get paid?: an economic study of professional artists in Australia. (2010).
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Throsby and Petetskya (2017), Throsby, Zwar and Crosby (2015)
About the Data
Data Description: 1039 survey questionnaires issued to serious, professional artists (not including those working in film, interior design or architecture). Artists identified using membership lists of Arts organisations and screened to ensure they are currently working in their principle artistic occupation, crosschecked with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census of Population and Household data.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2009
Funder(s):
  • Australia Council for the Arts

Abstract

This study reports the findings of the latest in a series of 5 surveys, conducted between 1983 and 2009, reporting the economic circumstances of professional artists. The surveys were conducted by Macquarie University for the Australia Council of the Arts. The data in this survey was collected in 2009 using the responses of over a thousand professional artists to a detailed questionnaire. The study uses census data to provide demographic information of the artist population in Australia and highlights changes since the previous studies, including a drop in the number of artists recording professional artist as their main occupation. Data from the survey highlights the income disparity between professional artists and the general population, with a mean average income of A$18,900 derived from the artist’s creative work. Survey data also highlights working patterns, time spent on artistic endeavours and career progression. Matters of financial security and income from non-arts sources are also reported. The study also highlights the contribution artists make with their artistic skills in non-artistic industries, and how digital technologies are changing the arts. The report is aimed at policy-makers, bureaucrats, arts organisations, artists themselves and the wider community.

Main Results of the Study

  • Artists in general suffer from low income and financial security*The context of artistic practice is changing due to a more 'portfolio' style of working and also due to the ubiquity of digital technology*Financial security of professional artists is falling*There is a decline in the proportion of artists under 35*Artists increasingly practice their creative talents in no-artistic industries*Women are more likely to earn a low income or be unemployed as professional artists, as are artists from a Non English Speaking Background and artists with a disability*The rise previously observed in the numbers of professional artists has levelled off


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Financial insecurity among professional artists is a concern* The copyright system may not be providing the remuneration needed to keep artists producing works


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 1039
Level of aggregation: Artists
Period of material under study: 2009