Van Kranenburg and Hogenbirk (2005)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

van Kranenburg and Hogenbirk (2005)
Title: Multimedia, Entertainment, and Business Software Copyright Piracy: A Cross-National Study
Author(s): van Kranenburg, H., Hogenbirk, A.
Year: 2005
Citation: van Kranenburg, H., & Hogenbirk, A. (2005). Multimedia, entertainment, and business software copyright piracy: A cross-national study. Journal of Media Economics, 18(2), 109-129.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The data set for this study was composed of data from various sources. The primary sources we employed were the IIPA (1999, 2000, 2001) and theWorld Bank (2000, 2001).The sample included a substantial number of countries from different regions: East Europe (10), Asia (11), the Middle East (8), and Latin America (13).
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 1999-2001
Funder(s):
  • None stated

Abstract

This article examines cross-national variations in piracy of U.S. copyright-related products in the multimedia, entertainment, and software industry. To determine which economic, legal, and social factors cause the considerable differences in piracy of U.S. copyright industries’ products in individual countries, we tested 4 industry models.We found that for most industries piracy can be explained by the risk profile of the country involved (signaling economic and political stability and growth potential) and the existence of a strong intellectual property rights system. Furthermore, for the 4 analyzed copyright-based industries, considerable variation in piracy exists between geographic regions. This study shows that disaggregation of the copyright piracy data by industry is helpful in analyzing and understanding piracy.

Main Results of the Study

  • Large market size of a host country results in higher revenue losses for the creative industries, even if the piracy rates in these industries are relatively low.
  • In general, low-risk countries show lower piracy rates and that the revenue losses suffered by U.S. companies producing and selling copyright-related products in these countries are positively related with the risk, with one exception: revenue losses due to business software applications piracy.
  • The evidence shows significant differences in piracy among separate regions in the world.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Studying the determinants of piracy rates and the estimated companies’revenue losses suffered abroad due to piracywould be useful for understanding the strategy and policy initiatives to be undertaken by companies, industries,andgovernments. This study extends existing studies (e.g., Husted, 2000; Marron & Steel, 2000) by examining the cross-national variation in piracy in four U.S. copyright-based industries: business software applications, record and musical compositions, motion pictures, and entertainment software.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
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Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
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Datasets

Sample size: 42
Level of aggregation: Country
Period of material under study: 1999-2001