Wang, Yang and Bhattacharjee (2011)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Wang, Yang and Bhattacharjee (2011)
Title: Same Coin, Different Sides: Differential Impact of Social Learning on Two Facets of Music Piracy
Author(s): Wang, J., Yang, Z., Bhattacharjee, S.
Year: 2011
Citation: Wang, J., Yang, Z., & Bhattacharjee, S. (2011). Same coin, different sides: Differential impact of social learning on two facets of music piracy. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(3), 343-384.
Link(s): Definitive,Definitive
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About the Data
Data Description: Survey protocol was pretested by a group of faculty members, doctoral students, undergraduate students, and university administration before the actual data collection. In addition, a pilot study was carried out with 298 students. Minor changes were made for the final survey, which took two versions. Both surveys had identical questions, but they were organized in a different order.

The final survey was distributed to a group of over 2,000 undergraduate students taking business, engineering, or science courses at a major university in southern United States. A total of 665 valid responses were collected, with 429 using one version of the questionnaire and 236 using the other version (with the order of the questions reversed).

Respondents were 56% male and 44% female. About 70% were junior and senior students. Approximately 55% were between the ages of 21 and 25. A majority (93%) spent at least 5 hours using a computer per week, and 87% were full-time students.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
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Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not Stated
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Abstract

We demonstrate that two intertwined activities of music piracy, unauthorized obtaining and unauthorized sharing, are differentially influenced by the same social learning environment. We develop a structural model and test it using survey data from a prime demographic set of respondents who engage in music piracy. Considering behavioral heterogeneity, we employ a factor mixture modeling technique to classify respondents into different groups that highlight distinct patterns of social learning influences. We find that the differential effects of social learning factors on obtaining and sharing persist across these groups. We further utilize demographic variables to profile members in each group for segmentation insights. From a theoretical perspective, our findings advance the understanding of music piracy and suggest the importance of separating obtaining from sharing activities when studying piracy. From a managerial perspective, our research provides new avenues for managers and policymakers to design targeted incentives to curtail music piracy.

Main Results of the Study

  • Unauthorized obtaining and unauthorized sharing are shaped differently by the same set of social learning variables.
  • All four social learning variables (differential association, definitions of music piracy, differential reinforcement, and imitation) have significant impact on unauthorized obtaining as predicted by social learning theory, while only two (differential association and imitation) exert significant influence on unauthorized sharing.
  • The impact of definitions and differential reinforcement on obtaining are significantly larger than that on sharing, whereas the reverse pattern holds for the effects of imitation and differential association.
  • Differential reinforcement is an important preventative mechanism of illegal obtaining; however, one’s sharing behavior is more likely to be shaped via differential association with peers who engage in music piracy and imitation of their behavior.
  • Intervention and prevention programs may be more effective when combined with consumer segmentation strategies.
  • The findings of this study indicate the significance of developing diverse strategies to curtail distinct aspects of music piracy.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Since sharing is mainly driven by imitation and differential association, policymakers should focus on these two aspects to reduce individuals’ tendency to engage in sharing. This can be done by setting up good examples among college students for them to follow, through successful counseling and intervention strategies designed to prevent students from associating with pirating groups, and by taking specific measures to break an individuals’ association with pirating peers.
  • Since unlawful obtaining is primarily motivated through the realization of personal benefits or avoidance of personal losses, it is greatly affected by definitions of music piracy and differential reinforcement. Policymakers can achieve this by developing effective educational programs to change individuals’ definitions of music piracy, shape their conceptions of morality and legitimacy regarding music piracy, and successfully create a normative culture among groups where each person feels individually and socially bound to abide by those legal standards.
  • Policymakers and managers could devise more cist-effective business models so that the perceived benefits of obtaining unauthorized music are reduced, and user-friendly shopping experience for music could be offered to enhance the benefit of “not pirating.”



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
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Datasets

Sample size: 665
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated