World Intellectual Property Organization (2014)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

World Intellectual Property Organization (2014)
Title: WIPO Studies on the Economic Contribution of the Copyright Industries
Author(s): World Intellectual Property Organization
Year: 2014
Citation: WIPO Studies on the Economic Contribution of the Copyright Industries, World Intellectual Property Organization (2014).
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: The present analysis is built on data from 42 national studies which have been finalized until December 2013.

The analysis seeks to present the available data in a harmonized manner in order to facilitate further research in this area. The data matrix that has been created enables constant update of the overview of results from country studies and the presentation of the variables surveyed. Currently the data base includes over 60 variables, including data from other relevant sources that enhance reporting and analysis on the subject matter. The analysis contained in this document presents an overview of the performance of the copyright industries in selected countries in terms of macroeconomic indicators. It compares this performance with other socio-economic indicators and analyses the structure of this economic contribution, outlining trends and patterns in a comparative perspective. The direct data analysis is followed by a data relationship analysis and a more detailed specific industry analysis. The direct data analysis in this document is based on two major indicators employed to measure performance of the copyright industries: Contribution to GDP (%) and Share of Employment (%). On the basis of the two a country positioning scheme is established.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2013
Funder(s):
  • World Intellectual Property Organization

Abstract

Since 2002 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) supports research on assessing the economic contribution of industries which are dependent on copyright and related rights protection – “the copyright industries”. In 2003 WIPO published common guidelines on carrying out such research throughout the world. This methodology outlines four groups of copyright industries, identified on the basis of their level of dependence on copyright material. It establishes a set of major indicators – contribution to GDP, employment and foreign trade, and lays out research standards and approaches. The WIPO guidelines were developed on the basis of best international practices by a group of renowned economists. The guidelines have been implemented in over 40 countries around the world and their improvement continues with the experience gained.

Main Results of the Study

The results of the national surveys confirm the importance of copyright industries in the overall economic performance. Copyright industries are well connected with the rest of the economy and have an active presence in the economic cycle. In many countries, copyright industries are playing a more important role than some traditional industries. Creative industries performance is enhanced when stimulated by governments (economic freedom), the legal system (well established property rights) and the businesses environment (competitiveness, innovation).

National studies confirm the applicability of the WIPO methodology in countries at various levels of development. Developed countries performance in terms of contribution to GDP is higher in core copyright industries, while the developing countries have higher contribution in the non-core industries. New studies that are being carried out across the world will enhance the analysis and the overview of the performance of the creative industries in the global economy.

More broadly representative sample to include a greater share of emerging and developed economies will strengthen the robustness of the analysis. The next steps could involve time series analysis, cluster/regional analysis, deeper examination of the relationships through a statistical model that would seek to disclose closer causal relationships between copyright industries performance measures and relevant explanatory variables.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The merit of further studies and deeper analysis of the copyright industries is in outlining the potential of copyright for development, the need of linking the implementation of a robust copyright regime to the achievement of development objectives. This can be achieved through streamlining and applying uniform approaches to future research. The WIPO model is a valuable tool in the context of such analysis.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 42
Level of aggregation: Country
Period of material under study: 2013