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(Created page with "{{MainSource |Source={{Source |Name of Study=Gibson, Johnson and Dimita (2015) |Author=Gibson, J.; Johnson, P.; Dimita, G.; |Title=The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of...")
 
 
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|Title=The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts
 
|Title=The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts
 
|Year=2015
 
|Year=2015
|Full Citation=Gibson, J., Johnson, P. And Dimita, G. (2015) The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts. Available: https://orca.cf.ac.uk/72431/1/Final%20Report%20-%20For%20Web%20Publication.pdf [last accessed: 23 May 2019]
+
|Full Citation=Gibson, J., Johnson, P. And Dimita, G. (2015) The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts. Available: https://orca.cf.ac.uk/72431/1/Final%20Report%20-%20For%20Web%20Publication.pdf (last accessed: 23 May 2019)
 
|Abstract=“A survey of authors was carried out between January and March 2014 with approximately 35,000 writers being contacted and asked to complete the survey. There were 2,454 respondents (7% response rate) starting the survey and 1,477 respondents (4.2% response rate) completing it. The results therefore present a fair reflection of UK authors in 2014.”
 
|Abstract=“A survey of authors was carried out between January and March 2014 with approximately 35,000 writers being contacted and asked to complete the survey. There were 2,454 respondents (7% response rate) starting the survey and 1,477 respondents (4.2% response rate) completing it. The results therefore present a fair reflection of UK authors in 2014.”
 
|Link=https://orca.cf.ac.uk/72431/1/Final%20Report%20-%20For%20Web%20Publication.pdf
 
|Link=https://orca.cf.ac.uk/72431/1/Final%20Report%20-%20For%20Web%20Publication.pdf

Latest revision as of 11:42, 12 July 2019


Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Gibson, Johnson and Dimita (2015)
Title: The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts
Author(s): Gibson, J., Johnson, P., Dimita, G.
Year: 2015
Citation: Gibson, J., Johnson, P. And Dimita, G. (2015) The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts. Available: https://orca.cf.ac.uk/72431/1/Final%20Report%20-%20For%20Web%20Publication.pdf (last accessed: 23 May 2019)
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Kretschmer, Gavaldon, Miettinen and Singh (2019)
About the Data
Data Description: Data were obtained via a survey of writers belonging to the Authors’ Licensing and Collecting Agency and Society of Authors. The survey sought to determine information regarding writers’ earnings and contractual issues. In total, the survey returned 1,477 complete responses (a 7% response rate).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 15 January 2014 - 16 March 2014
Funder(s):
  • ALCS

Abstract

“A survey of authors was carried out between January and March 2014 with approximately 35,000 writers being contacted and asked to complete the survey. There were 2,454 respondents (7% response rate) starting the survey and 1,477 respondents (4.2% response rate) completing it. The results therefore present a fair reflection of UK authors in 2014.”

Main Results of the Study

Authors earnings have been fallen by 19% since 2005, with present average earnings of £16,809; full-time authors (spending 50% or more of their time writing) have also experienced a decline in earnings of 8%, with average earnings of £28,340. However, the writing profession appears to favour a “winner-takes-all” structure, with a small concentration of authors earning a disproportionately high amount of money. As such, median earnings are considered more accurate, though represent a more significant drop in earnings; per these figures, authors earn £4,000 and professional writers £11,000 (less than minimum wage). Earnings may vary according to age (with younger authors earning less) and gender (with professional female authors earning approx. Average 80% of male earnings).

The survey suggests an improvement in author/publisher relationships, with many authors retaining copyright in their work (only 12% never retaining copyright in their work following publication). Advances continue to be paid, though with less frequency (only 66% reportedly receiving such) and for lower value (44% reporting a decrease over the last 5 years). Moral rights continue to be enforced by authors, and are rarely disputed with publishers (occurring with only 4% of authors). Nonetheless, authors perceive themselves as having a weaker bargaining position than they did five years ago, and buy-out contracts remain common (with 46% having signed such a contract).

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The report does not offer any policy recommendations. Instead the report suggests worsening wages for authors overall, and particularly professional authors, though some modest improvement with contractual relationships with publishers.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets