Higgins, Wolfe and Ricketts (2009)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Higgins, Wolfe and Ricketts (2009)
Title: Digital Piracy A Latent Class Analysis
Author(s): Higgins, G. E., Wolfe, S. E., Ricketts, M. L.
Year: 2009
Citation: Higgins, G. E., Wolfe, S. E., & Ricketts, M. L. (2009). Digital Piracy: A Latent Class Analysis. Social science computer review, 27(1), 24-40.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This study used a self-report questionnaire administered to college students at three universities in the southeastern United States.

The mean age of the sample was 21 years, with a range from 18 to more than25; 39.9% of the sample was male (n = 143) and 59.2% were female (n = 212); 28.2% of respondents were non-White (n = 101), and the remaining 66.2% were White (n = 237).

The study utilized a scenario in the questionnaire similar to other perceptual research. The scenario involved downloading of a CD.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2006
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

The rates of digital piracy appear to be increasing, suggesting that additional research that uses new approaches is necessary to evaluate the problem. Using data from undergraduate students (n = 353), the present study explores actual digital piracy and the intention to perform piracy using latent class analysis, develops profiles of these individuals, and provides an analysis of the differences between intentions and actual digital piracy for the groups. The results indicate three separate classes for each form of digital piracy and different profiles for each form of piracy. Actual piracy shows more demographic and social learning theory differences among individuals, whereas scenario-based digital piracy shows more self-control and social learning theory differences among individuals. A cross-tab analysis shows that there are differences between individuals who actually perform digital piracy and those who have the intention to pirate. Research and policy implications are discussed from these findings.

Main Results of the Study

The study had three main objectives: to investigate whether subgroups (i.e., classes) exist in a sample that was collected for actual digital piracy and scenario-based digital piracy, to present the distinguishing measures that were consistent with class membership, and to determine whether there are significant differences between the individuals in the classes for actual digital piracy and scenario digital piracy, supporting Piquero (in press).

The main results of this study are:

  • Three separate classes for each form of digital piracy and different profiles for each form of piracy.
  • Actual piracy shows more demographic and social learning theory differences among individuals, whereas scenario-based digital piracy shows more self-control and social learning theory differences among individuals.
  • A cross-tab analysis shows that there are differences between individuals who actually perform digital piracy and those who have the intention to pirate.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

"From a policy perspective, curriculums can be developed to reduce the association with digital piracy peers, positive attitudes toward digital piracy, and the attractiveness of digital piracy, thereby reducing the individual propensity."



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 353
Level of aggregation: P2P users
Period of material under study: 2006