Difference between revisions of "Marron and Steel (2000)"

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|Intervention-Response=These findings have several implications. First, they support the argument that intellectual property is a cultural phenomenon as well as an economic one. Countries with a collective culture- one that emphasizes sharing over individual ownership rights - have significantly higher piracy rates that do countries with an individualistic culture. Second, the results indicate the important link between economic institutions and intellectual property. Countries that protect contracts and traditional property also tend to be ones that protect intellectual property to software. Third, they indicate that the positive correlation between economic development and protection of intellectual property (i.e. low piracy rates) need not be casual. Although the exact relationship between economic development and intellectual property protection is unclear, it appears that much of the positive correlation can be explained by cultural and institutional factors that are correlated with economic development.  
 
|Intervention-Response=These findings have several implications. First, they support the argument that intellectual property is a cultural phenomenon as well as an economic one. Countries with a collective culture- one that emphasizes sharing over individual ownership rights - have significantly higher piracy rates that do countries with an individualistic culture. Second, the results indicate the important link between economic institutions and intellectual property. Countries that protect contracts and traditional property also tend to be ones that protect intellectual property to software. Third, they indicate that the positive correlation between economic development and protection of intellectual property (i.e. low piracy rates) need not be casual. Although the exact relationship between economic development and intellectual property protection is unclear, it appears that much of the positive correlation can be explained by cultural and institutional factors that are correlated with economic development.  
 
Taken together these results suggest that efforts to reform intellectual property rights around the world must be sensitive to differences in cultural traditions and economic institutions, as well as differences in economic development.
 
Taken together these results suggest that efforts to reform intellectual property rights around the world must be sensitive to differences in cultural traditions and economic institutions, as well as differences in economic development.
 +
|Description of Data=The authors explore  how  piracy  rates  correlate  with  certain economic, institutional, and cultural factors, focussing on the comparison between the average piracy rates in 77 countries between 1994 and 1997.
 +
|Data Year=1994-1997
 
|Data Type=Secondary data
 
|Data Type=Secondary data
 
|Data Source=The World Bank; Hofstede (1983); The Central Intelligence Agency (1995);
 
|Data Source=The World Bank; Hofstede (1983); The Central Intelligence Agency (1995);
 
|Method of Analysis=Quantitative Analysis Methods, Descriptive statistics (counting; means reporting; cross-tabulation), Regression Analysis
 
|Method of Analysis=Quantitative Analysis Methods, Descriptive statistics (counting; means reporting; cross-tabulation), Regression Analysis
 +
|Industry=Cultural education;
 +
|Country=Global;
 
|Cross-country=Yes
 
|Cross-country=Yes
 
|Comparative=No
 
|Comparative=No
 +
|Government or policy=No
 +
|Literature review=No
 +
}}
 +
|Dataset={{Dataset
 +
|Sample Size=77
 +
|Level of Aggregation=Country,
 +
|Data Material Year=1994-1997
 
}}
 
}}
|Dataset={{Dataset}}
 
 
}}
 
}}

Revision as of 11:17, 23 November 2016

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Marron and Steel (2000)
Title: Which countries protect intellectual property? The case of software piracy
Author(s): Marron, B.D., Steel, D.G.
Year: 2000
Citation: Marron, D. B., & Steel, D. G. (2000). Which countries protect intellectual property? The case of software piracy. Economic inquiry, 38(2), 159-174.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Banerjee, Khalid and Sturm (2005), Bezmen and Depken (2006), Depken and Simmons (2004), Karakaya (2011), Lu (2009), Van Kranenburg and Hogenbirk (2005)
About the Data
Data Description: The authors explore how piracy rates correlate with certain economic, institutional, and cultural factors, focussing on the comparison between the average piracy rates in 77 countries between 1994 and 1997.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 1994-1997
Funder(s):

Abstract

Using data on software piracy, we examine how protection of intellectual property varies across countries. Consistent with other studies, we find that intellectual property receives greater protection in developed economies; high-income countries have lower piracy rates. We also find that protection depends on cultural factors. Countries with an individualist culture have lower piracy rates than do countries with a collectivist culture. Piracy rates are also lower in countries that have strong institutions that enforce contracts and protect property from expropriation. These results suggest that national policies towards intellectual property reflect not only economic concerns but also national culture and institutions.

Main Results of the Study

Software piracy rates can be explained by a few economic, institutional, cultural variables. Countries with high per-capita income, a tradition of individualism, and/or strong institutions protecting contracts and property tend to have low piracy rates. Countries with high levels of education and high R&D intensity also have low piracy rates; however, these relationships are weak, at best, in regressions that account for economic development, culture , and institutional strength.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

These findings have several implications. First, they support the argument that intellectual property is a cultural phenomenon as well as an economic one. Countries with a collective culture- one that emphasizes sharing over individual ownership rights - have significantly higher piracy rates that do countries with an individualistic culture. Second, the results indicate the important link between economic institutions and intellectual property. Countries that protect contracts and traditional property also tend to be ones that protect intellectual property to software. Third, they indicate that the positive correlation between economic development and protection of intellectual property (i.e. low piracy rates) need not be casual. Although the exact relationship between economic development and intellectual property protection is unclear, it appears that much of the positive correlation can be explained by cultural and institutional factors that are correlated with economic development. Taken together these results suggest that efforts to reform intellectual property rights around the world must be sensitive to differences in cultural traditions and economic institutions, as well as differences in economic development.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 77
Level of aggregation: Country
Period of material under study: 1994-1997