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Latest revision as of 17:03, 11 June 2019




Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Throsby, Zwar and Crosby (2015)
Title: The Australian Book Industry: Authors, publishers and readers
Author(s): David Throsby, Jan Zwar, Paul Crosby
Year: 2015
Citation: Throsby, Zwar and Crosby (2015) The Australian Book Industry: Authors, publishers and readers. Available: http://www.businessandeconomics.mq.edu.au/our_departments/Economics/econ_research/reach_network/book_project/about (last accessed: 11 June 2019)
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Data were obtained from an online survey of Australian authors, returning 993 responses.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • February 2015
Funder(s):
  • Australian Research Council
  • Macquarie University

Abstract

“The Australian Book Industry: Authors, publishers and readers in a time of change’ is a three-year research project led by Prof. David Throsby, funded by the Australian Research Council under Discovery Project grant DP 140101479 and Macquarie University. In February 2015 the researchers conducted an online survey of over 1,000 Australian book authors.”

Main Results of the Study

Whilst 20% of authors work full-time on their creative practice, less than 5% earn the average annual income from this alone. Authors nearly always supplement their practice with additional income, with nearly half of authors undertaking an additional job unrelated to authorship. Taking into account all sources of income, only 43% of authors earn the average annual income of Australia (61,485 AUD), and earnings from authorship alone average 12,900 AUD. Across the board, education and scholarly authors earn the highest income on average (130,000 AUD) and poets the lowest (4,900 AUD). The market has a tendency towards winner-takes-all structures, with one fifth of authors earning over 100,000 AUD and 2.5% earning over 200,000. 40% of authors state their financial position has not changed over the past 5 years, whereas 15% feel worse and a further 15% better.

New technologies and modes of publishing impact authors to varying degrees. Only half of authors report working with a publisher (42%) with one in five self-publishing instead. Of all genres, the study finds that authors of fiction are the most likely to benefit from these changes, with one quarter of them reporting improvements in their financial position over the past 5 years. Yet, they also remain the most vulnerable to piracy (44.7%).

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The study does not offer any explicit policy recommendations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets