Difference between revisions of "Throsby and Petetskya (2017)"

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|Title=Making Art Work: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia
 
|Title=Making Art Work: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia
 
|Year=2017
 
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Latest revision as of 07:43, 21 May 2020

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Throsby and Petetskya (2017)
Title: Making Art Work: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia
Author(s): Throsby, D., Petetskaya, K.
Year: 2017
Citation: Throsby, D. And Petetskaya, K. (2017) Making Art Work: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia. A report commissioned by the Australia Council.
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The study is based around survey research of “practising professional artists” across all identified art forms in Australia (as defined by a strict set of criteria). The survey included questions relating to artist income, work practices, and wellbeing. The research was undertaken by TKW Research, who utilised computer-assisted telephone interviewing with a random sample of Australian artists. In total, 826 interviews were achieved.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • November 2016
  • March 2017
Funder(s):
  • Australia Council

Abstract

“This survey is the sixth in a series carried out over more than 30 years at Macquarie University, with funding from the Australia Council. The surveys have thrown light on the ways in which professional arts practice has been changing over time. The development of the internet and digital technologies have transformed not only the ways in which artists can participate in the international art world and the global economy, but also the very processes of artistic creation. At the same time, employment conditions for artists have been changing radically, with increasing insecurity in contractual arrangements, and the replacement of steady employment with the emerging concept of the portfolio career, characterised by a variety of work arrangements. Nevertheless, there is also a sense in which nothing changes. The fundamental processes of creativity, the pursuit of an artistic vision and the passionate commitment to art that characterises art professionals—these things remain at the heart of what it is to be a practising artist. For many artists the real challenge is to keep hold of these core values in such a rapidly changing environment.“

Main Results of the Study

Beginning with an assessment of Australian artists incomes, the survey finds that the average income is 48,400 AUD, noting that 58% of the artists surveyed earn less than 10,000 AUD per year for their creative work alone. This low-income (particularly in relation to the minimum living costs) is cited as the primary barrier for professional artists’ development.In relation to copyright, the survey finds that 82% of artists believe they hold copyright in their works. Writers and composers (who the survey finds are more dependent on royalties for their earnings) appear to be more informed of their economic rights, whereas artists and craftspeople are least aware. 53% of the artists surveyed belong to a copyright collecting society, of which 62% collected payment within the given year.In relation to infringement, 26% of respondents reported that their copyright had been infringed at some point, of which 37% took action, and 59% were successful. 21% of artists also reported a moral rights infringement, usually in relation to the right to attribution. Community cultural development artists, writers, and visual artists, appear to be the most vulnerable to copyright infringement. The authors also note the vulnerabilities of Australian traditional owners, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists, whose underlying stories, styles and art methods may not be subject to copyright protection. Approximately half of the artists surveyed perceive Australian copyright (and moral rights) protection to be adequate.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Whilst the authors do not make an explicit policy recommendations, they offer the report as objective and comprehensive data on the working and living conditions of professional artists in Australia. As emphasis on the creative economy grows, the authors suggest this report may be used to inform policy-making, particularly due to changes caused by developments in the digital world.In relation to copyright, the authors suggest that, due to the demonstrable lack of awareness by artists, educational programs should be developed to inform professional artists of their economic and moral rights. They also note that the relatively low number of artists who pursue infringement indicates a lack of redress mechanisms.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Green-tick.png
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

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