Albinsson (2013)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Albinsson (2013)
Title: Swings and roundabouts: Swedish music copyrights 1980 - 2009
Author(s): Albinsson, S.
Year: 2013
Citation: Albinsson, S. (2013) Swings and roundabouts: Swedish music copyrights 1980 - 2009. Journal of Cultural Economics 37, 175 - 184
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The study dataset is compiled from the Swedish Performing Right Society’s annual reports on the distribution of payments from music copyrights.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 1980 - 2009
Funder(s):

Abstract

“For this study, data from the annual reports of the STIM (the Swedish Performing Right Society) (By Swedes it is read as a word: ‘stim’ and not as four separate initials S.T.I.M.) were collected and analysed. If the general hypothesis that a digital technology shift has resulted in illegal downloading holds true, there should be a decrease in total revenues for composers from record sales. This is what the STIM data show. There has, however, been a simultaneous growth in income from other sources, which compensates for the loss from record royalties. This study also includes a unique data set from the STIM showing revenues for individual music IPR owners. The general finding is that a very small group of composers receives a very large share of the copyright revenues. Music as a ‘winner-takes-all’ arena is apparent.”

Main Results of the Study

• The average annual growth rate for STIM revenues is 6.4%, reducing to 3.8% between 1995 and 2009. As revenues have been increasing, so too has membership to STIM, averaging 5.2% increases between 2003 and 2009, and 5.2% between 2008 and 2009 alone. Thus, as revenues are increasing, so too is membership.

• Sales of CDs and records have decreased, having peaked in 2001. However, since then, revenues from broadcasts and live performances have increased.

• 95% of revenue recipients received fewer than 10,000 SEK in 2009; by contrast, in 2009, 0.2% of recipients collected 36% of total revenue. The study finds that only 1% of recipients (approx 30 - 90 composers) earn enough to make a decent standard of living. As such, this is indicative of a winner-takes-all market.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The study does not make any explicit policy recommendations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 29
Level of aggregation: Reports
Period of material under study: 1980 - 2009