Ingram and Hinduja (2008)
|Ingram and Hinduja (2008)|
|Title:||Neutralizing music piracy: an empirical examination|
|Author(s):||Ingram, J. R., Hinduja, S.|
|Citation:||Ingram, J. R., & Hinduja, S. (2008). Neutralizing music piracy: An empirical examination. Deviant Behavior, 29(4), 334-366.|
|Key Related Studies:|
|Linked by:||Hinduja and Higgins (2011), Hinduja and Ingram (2009), Sheehan, Tsao and Pokrywczynski (2012), Siponen, Vance and Willison (2012)|
|About the Data|
|Data Description:||Dataset consists of questionnaires answered by a large and heterogeneous group of 2032 undergraduate students in 2003 at a large public Midwestern university.|
|Data Type:||Primary data|
|Secondary Data Sources:|
|Data Collection Methods:|
|Data Analysis Methods:|
|Cross Country Study?:||No|
|Government or policy study?:||No|
|Time Period(s) of Collection:||
The current study sought to test the viability of employing Sykes and Matza’s (1957) techniques of neutralization as a framework for understanding online music piracy. Using data from a sample of 2,032 undergraduates from a large Midwestern university, the relevance of neutralization theory is tested via multinomial logistic regression while controlling for other theoretical predictors and demographic variables. The findings indicated that greater acceptance of the techniques associated with denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, and appeal to higher loyalties significantly predicted moderate levels of piracy participation. Furthermore, the effect of appeals to higher loyalty on piracy was found to be conditioned by the respondent’s approval of the behavior. Overall, results suggested that university settings may unwittingly facilitate a climate for online piracy whereby students place a higher value on group norms rather than legal norms and do not consider the harms associated with the behavior.
Main Results of the Study
This article aims at assessing neutralization theory’s applicability to online music piracy to determine its empirical validity. It seeks to test the relevance of neutralization techniques to music pirating behavior and examines the proposed nonlinear relationship between acceptance of the techniques and the level of participation in music piracy. It shows that:
- The neutralization techniques were weakly related to piracy, with greater acceptance of the techniques being associated with higher participation levels.
- The relationship between this specific neutralization and music piracy appears to be conditioned by students’ beliefs regarding unauthorized downloading.
- Students who disapproved of unauthorized music downloading were significantly more likely to be influenced by the neutralization measure of higher loyalty.
- Disapproving students with low levels of involvement in music piracy were also significantly more likely to invoke the technique of condemnation compared to those in the no participation category.
Policy Implications as Stated By Author
- Neutralization theory can be a useful framework for understanding online piracy and bear important policy and theoretical implications for efforts to address this behavior, especially within university settings.
- Universities should develop strategies to demonstrate the tangible harm that is caused by music piracy, and that can reach a wide student audience.
- Academic institutions may need to take a greater role in addressing the potentiality and actuality of the phenomenon through macro-level practice or policy.
Coverage of Study
|Level of aggregation:||University students|
|Period of material under study:||2003|